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El trimestre económico

versão On-line ISSN 2448-718Xversão impressa ISSN 0041-3011


LOPEZ PEREZ, Sugey de J.  e  VENCE, Xavier. Structure and evolution of tax revenues and tax benefits in Mexico. Analysis of the 1990-2019 period and evaluation of the 2014 fiscal reform. El trimestre econ [online]. 2021, vol.88, n.350, pp.373-417.  Epub 18-Jun-2021. ISSN 2448-718X.

The structure and the trend of the fiscal system reflect the orientation of the development model of Mexico in past decades and they determine its future model and its ability to meet the main social challenges (development, equity, wellbeing, environmental sustainability, etc.). The objective of this paper is to study the relative dimension, the tax structure and the trends in tax collection, as well as the nature and the objectives of the incentives and the tax benefits that have been enforced in Mexico in recent years. This exercise allows an evaluation of the 2014 tax reform to be made with the perspective of the past six years and the formulation of future challenges. A descriptive and qualitative approach was used based on data obtained from the Inter-American Center of Tax Administration (CIAT), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público (SHCP). The structure of tax collection is analyzed, with a focus on the main federal taxes, as well as the volume and the composition of tax expenditure, by breaking down the existing incentives and the tax benefits on each of the taxes. The main results indicate a passive evolution in the collection power that grew from 12.5% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 1990 to 15.6% in 2019, principally based on consumer taxes, wage income tax and a strong dependence on the fossil fuels sector. This shows that some of the stated objectives of the 2014 reform-significantly increasing collection capacity and reducing the jungle of incentives and tax benefits-have hardly been met. In conclusion, some of the challenges that a tax reform should face in terms of inclusion, equity and sustainability are formulated.

Palavras-chave : Tax revenues; taxation; tax expenditure; tax reform; Mexico; E62; H22; H23; H24; H25.

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