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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versão impressa ISSN 2007-0934

Resumo

LOPEZ BAEZ, Walter et al. Physical-chemical characterization of soils cultivated with corn in Villaflores, Chiapas. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2019, vol.10, n.4, pp.897-910.  Epub 22-Maio-2020. ISSN 2007-0934.  https://doi.org/10.29312/remexca.v10i4.1764.

With the objective of designing a strategy to reverse the low productivity and profitability presented by the cultivation of corn in the municipality of Villaflores, the chemical and physical characteristics of the soils were studied in 236 mechanized plots distributed in 13 common and seven types of soils. The determinations were interpreted based on the Official Mexican Standard NOM-021-SEMARNAT-2000. The results indicate a generalized acidity in the soils, with an average pH of 5.2 (±0.9), 52% of the sites with pH less than 5; 208 cases showed interchangeable acidity in 64.4% of them, the value was higher than 0.5 meq 100 g-1, considered a critical limit for the plants. On average, organic matter (OM) was 1.7% (±1.3) and in no case did the content exceed 2.5%. The cation exchange capacity (CIC) was 11.4 (±16.8) meq 100 g-1, and influenced by pH (R2= 0.65), OM (R2= 0.32) and clay content (R2= 0.68). In 94% of sites with low OM, CIC is significantly dependent on clay content. Regarding the saturation percentage of the CIC, 59% of the cases are deficient in Ca, 18% in Mg and 58% in K. 40% of the sites are below the critical limit of 15 ppm of P. 90 and 46% of the cases presented deficiencies of Boron and Zinc. Under these conditions, the need for a strategy to increase the quality of the soil and the practices of agriculture can be sustainable.

Palavras-chave : land; management; unsustainable.

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