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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versão impressa ISSN 2007-0934

Resumo

FIERROS LEYVA, Gustavo Adolfo et al. Distribution of fungi associated with chickpea root rot. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2019, vol.10, n.1, pp.131-142. ISSN 2007-0934.  http://dx.doi.org/10.29312/remexca.v10i1.1730.

In northwestern Mexico, one of the constraints for the production of chickpeas are root diseases caused by a complex of soil fungi. Identifying and determining the distribution of these fungi in the areas used to plant chick-pea will allow defining the lowest risk of damage to the crop. During the autumn-winter 2012-13 cycle, 46 fields planted with chick-pea were sampled and geographed in the coast of Hermosillo. The 221 plant samples with symptoms of root rot were collected, and 197 fungal isolates were obtained in the laboratory. After their purification and classification, the individual isolates showed the typical morphological characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. A risk index for soil pathogens was elaborated, defined by the number of species causing the disease in each site sampled, and distribution mapping of each pathogen. In 34 142 potential hectares of the agricultural area (22.5%) the risk index was low with a different species isolated through the sampling sites; 62 238 ha (41%) were detected with two different species and considered as medium risk areas. As high risk areas, where a complex of three pathogens was found in an area of 50 628 ha (33.3%) and with four pathogens considered as very high risk areas, 4 813 ha (3.2%). The species with the highest frequency of appearance in the coast of Hermosillo was Macrophomina phaseolina with 41% in the samples and in 77% of the sampled fields.

Palavras-chave : Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris; Fusarium solani; Macrophomina phaseolina; Rhizoctonia solani; pathogenic potential.

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