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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Resumen

ARELLANO VAZQUEZ, José Luis; VIRGEN VARGAS, Juan  y  ROJAS MARTINEZ, Israel. Gacela H72: early maize hybrid to rainfed and irrigated areas of Central Highlands of Mexico. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2018, vol.9, n.6, pp.1303-1310. ISSN 2007-0934.  https://doi.org/10.29312/remexca.v9i6.1590.

Due to the climate change that is manifested in the irregular distribution of rainfall less than its incidence in temporary and higher temperatures, the problem of lack of early corn hybrids arises, especially for regions of low and medium productive potential of the central table of Mexico, which cover 1 200 000 ha of cultivated area. The hybrid of early corn Gacela H72, was generated to respond to the conditions of climate change, since it is a double hybrid of early cycle and great hardiness, presents growth and vigorous development in the initial vegetative stage, so it exceeds the size of plant to other maize hybrids during the 30 days after emergence, is tolerant to drought in the vegetative and reproductive stages and yields well in conditions of low chemical fertilization. Its yield has a range of 3 to 11 t ha-1 which surpasses the 50% and creole varieties and 20% private commercial hybrids. It has a period of steepness between 95 and 100 days at altitudes of 2 600 m where other hybrids and varieties reach it between 110 and 115 days. It is resistant to the charcoal of the spike (Sphaceloteca reiliana) and to the putrescence of the cob (Fusarium spp.) And has the quality of nixtamalera-tortillera. Gacela H72, being a double hybrid, has progenitors with higher productivity in the seed than other hybrids, its female parent renders 7.5 t ha-1 in the High Valleys, which gives it 25% more profitability in the production of the registered and certified seed with respect to other maize hybrids. Plant size facilitates intensive sowing with 70 000 plants ha-1 and with double-row planting to 100 000 plants ha-1 yields of 10 to 11 t ha-1 have been achieved. The harvest can be done at 150 days with a moisture content in grain 25%, so the cob must undergo a drying process to reduce the moisture content of the grain 14%. In areas of irrigation and good weather has potential for the production of forage. The main economic impact of the Gacela H72 is the difference of 3 to 4 t ha-1 over the yield of the creole variety, which represents 12 000.00 to 16 000.00 pesos per hectare, which makes corn production profitable.

Palabras llave : Zea mays L.; semicrystalline white grain; double hybrid; early maturity.

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