Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas
versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934
ESQUIVEL ESQUIVEL, Gilberto et al. Heterosis in maize from the Mexican Highlands with different degree of genetic divergence. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2011, vol.2, n.3, pp. 331-344. ISSN 2007-0934.
With the aim of assess the variation of heterosis, and to identify potential heterotic patterns in maize (Zea mays L.), 15 progenitor populations originating from the geographical area of distribution of the Chalqueño race, along with their 105 crosses and other additional groups of genotypes all of them from the Mexican Highlands were evaluated. The evaluation was carried out during the 2006 Spring-Summer agricultural cycle in Zotoluca, Apan, Hidalgo, Mixquiahuala, Hidalgo and Texcoco, State of Mexico, under a 12* 12 lattice design with three replications. Grain yield, grain index, corncobs per plant, corncob diameter, kernel length, number of kernel rows per corncobs; days to anthesis and plant height were registered. Significant differences (p< 0.01) among locations, among groups and among populations within groups were detected for the eight traits. Significant correlation was found between yield and its components and between yield and plant height. Populations Col-03-64, Col-6784 and FHCH-129Fn of the Chalqueño race showed high per se performance, as did their crosses as an average, while Gto-142, Zac-66, Tlaxcala-151 and VS-22, variants of the same race, had the highest expression in both yield and its components as well as in morphology and phenology. There were significant interactions between the parent populations and outstanding heterotic patterns, being noticeable various combinations derived from Oax-814 and Zac-66, as influenced by a distant geographical origin associated with increased genetic divergence.
Palabras llave : Zea mays L.; Chalqueño; diallelic crosses; heterosis; heterotic patterns.