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Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas

versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934

Resumen

ROCHA-ARROYO, José Luis et al. Phenology of 'Hass' avocado in Michoacan. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2011, vol.2, n.3, pp. 303-316. ISSN 2007-0934.

There is little systematic information on phenology of 'Hass' avocado in Michoacán and it is important to increase the efficiency of orchard's management practices to improve its productivity. The goal of this study was to develop phenological models from the dates of occurrence of the main shoot and root growth flushes in different 'Hass' production areas of the state of Michoacán. The study was conducted during 2006-2008 in 14 mature 'Hass' avocado orchards grown under irrigation and without irrigation in seven climates of Michoacán. In all climates and in both irrigated and non irrigated orchards, 'Hass' presented three flushes of vegetative growth: winter (higher intensity), Spring and Summer (lower intensity) and three to four flowering flushes: crazy flowering, advanced, normal and marceña. The complete floral development process for shoots that produced crazy flowering required: 8.5 to 9.5, 5.5 to 6, and 2.5 to 3.5 months for the Winter, Spring and Summer flushes, respectively. Shoots that produced normal flowering needed: 13 to 13.5, 9.5 to 10.5, and 7 to 7.5 months, for the same flushes, respectively. Fruit growth set by the normal and marceña flowering lasted 8-9 months and that from the marceña was 4% to 11% lower than the ones from the normal. In the warm subhumid and temperate subhumid climates the first root flush peaked in May and June and the second in December, while in the semiwarm subhumid and humid climates, both flushes occurred in March-April and September-October, respectively. The fruit of the normal flowering was 7% smaller in no irrigated than in with irrigated. In with irrigated and no irrigated orchards there were two flushes of root production, in the no irrigated occurred in March and September and in the with irrigated in April and October. In all climates average air temperatures ranged from 14 ºC to 24 ºC and in the soil from 13 ºC to 21 ºC.

Palabras llave : Persea americana; flowering vegetative; flushes; fruit; roots.

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