Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas
versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934
ACOSTA-DIAZ, Efraín et al. Drought effect in bean biomass and grain production. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2011, vol.2, n.2, pp. 249-263. ISSN 2007-0934.
Intermittent drought is most limiting factor for bean production (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under seasonal conditions in Mexico. Aim of this work was to determine drought effect on biomass accumulation of sprout and grain yield in creole and introduced seasonal bean varieties. Two experiments were set, one with 21 native varieties and another with 15 introduced varieties, from different uncertain type growth habit, at Academic Unit La Asención from Agronomy School of Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico in 2009. Experiments were done under two treatments of soil humidity: irrigation during whole cycle and drought. In irrigation treatment soil was kept above 60% of serviceable humidity during cultivation cycle, by precipitation and four irrigation aids (two before and other two after flowering), while in treatment of drought irrigation was suspended when flowering started. In both experiments, under drought condition biomass accumulation of sprout and grain yield was significantly lower (p≤ 0.01) than in irrigation treatment. In general, effect of drought treatment on sprout's dry weight was greater in native varieties, while effect on grain yield was greater in introduced varieties. In drought, varieties with higher yield were: native, Pinto-2, Pinto-1, Amarillo Mantequilla, Boleado, Bayo Blanco, Canelo and Quipincillo Rojo-1; and introduced, Peruano, Flor de Mayo Media Oreja, Pinto-5 and Ojo de Cabra. In accordance with drought susceptibility index and geometric average, most efficient varieties for production of grain yield under both humidity conditions were: Pinto-2, Amarillo Mantequilla, Pinto-1, Boleado, Peruano, Flor de Mayo Media Oreja, Pinto-5 and Ojo de Cabra; without exception, all these varieties were collected in test region, which demonstrates importance of local adaptation under drought conditions.
Palabras llave : Phaseolus vulgaris L.; geometric average; introduced varieties; native varieties; susceptibility to drought index.