Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas
versión impresa ISSN 2007-0934
SANGERMAN-JARQUIN, Dora Ma. et al. Considerations and social importance of the bean crop in central Mexico. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc [online]. 2010, vol.1, n.3, pp. 363-380. ISSN 2007-0934.
In Mexico, common bean is an essential component in the diet of the population due to its high protein content; it ranks second in national importance after maize. The production of pulses, mainly of dry beans, has dropped to a 3.2% rate, whereas population growth is higher than dry bean production. The dry bean seed is a natural source of protein and carbohydrates, is also rich in vitamin B such as niacin, folic acid and thiamine, provides iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium, and contains high fiber content. There exist many classes of beans that are characterized by their seed size, color, shape and the type of plant growth. It is considered that in total there are 70 species in the genus, and at least 50 in Mexico; five species have been domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus L. (runner bean), Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean), Phaseolus dumosus L. (fat kidney bean) and Phaseolus acutifolius Gray (tepari bean). In Mexico, around 70 cultivars are grown, according to the standard seed classification they are: black, pinto, brown, yellow and pink. The bean crop possesses particular characteristics that are important in the context of food sovereignty, considering it as a staple food for rural and urban poor. The bean breeding program of the National Research Institute, Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP), at the Campo Experimental Valle de Mexico (CEVAMEX), has contributed in the development of the technology required for the country to achieve self-sufficiency in this crop. This technology includes improved varieties with higher yielding ability and better seed nutritive and cooking quality.
Palabras llave : Phaseolus vulgaris L.; agriculture; feeding; population; perspectives.