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Nova scientia

versión On-line ISSN 2007-0705

Resumen

ANGEL-PEREZ, Ana Lid del et al. Regional trade position for enhanced corns generated by INIFAP in Veracruz. Nova scientia [online]. 2016, vol.8, n.17, pp.614-637. ISSN 2007-0705.

Introduction:

Corn is a staple cereal in Mexican food and the most cultivated by farmers. However, demand of corn for consumption and improved seed (IS), has led to strong imports, as in 2012, when 9'515,000 t were imported. A great deal of demand for IS is covered by transnational corporations, and to a lesser extent by small private companies and government agencies such as the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP). The objective of the study was to characterize the regional market of IS in the state of Veracruz, the trading position of INIFAP and the relevant variables that motivate the purchase decision.

Method:

In 2015 a questionnaire to 100 producers of corn for grain was applied in eight municipalities in the state of Veracruz, by respondent-driven sampling. The questionnaire considered open and closed multiple choice questions to obtain information on socioeconomic and perceptual knowledge on use of INIFAP improved seeds or those farmers usually utilize.

Results and discussion:

INIFAP holds 75% of the IS regional market. This market is composed by small-scale producers (3.4 ha on average). The motivation for planting depends on the recommendation of friends or relatives (p < 0.0001). Use of INIFAP IS is associated with socioeconomic variables such as nearness of the place of purchase (0.9451 **) and being aware of INIFAP seeds (0.9199 **), as well as the fact that farmers sow IS (0.4320 **) and prefer planting IS SM (0.3844 **); even though correlation coefficients are associations are strengthened by the significance. Opinion variables that favor the use of IS had better traits than native seeds (0.6162 **) and good plant architecture (0.3938 **). Relevant perception traits associated for the farmer consuming grain were flavor, nixtamalization, aroma, color, consistency, toughness, cooking time and shelf life, noting significant difference (p < 0.0001) manly in the first three. Of these, traits INIFAP´s IS meet two expectations, good taste (0.2727 **) and Nixtamalization (0.2596 **), with weak r coefficients but statistically significant.

Conclusion:

Regional market INIFAP´s IS is focused on small-scale producers, who have not a clear idea of the advantages of this seed, compared with those of private companies, and they only compare them against native seeds. INIFAP´s IS only provide two of eight desired traits. Current diffusion mechanisms do not help to motivate customers or gain their loyalty. Recommendation of friends or family and nearness to the Experimental Station where seed is produced and sold have been the main drivers behind the use of such varieties.

Palabras llave : grain production; improved seed; farmers; regional market.

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