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Norteamérica

versión On-line ISSN 2448-7228versión impresa ISSN 1870-3550

Resumen

SALAMANCA PACHECO, Elizabeth. Implications of the U.S. Visa Reform for Highly-Skilled Mexican Migration. Norteamérica [online]. 2019, vol.14, n.1, pp.233-258.  Epub 30-Jun-2020. ISSN 2448-7228.  https://doi.org/10.22201/cisan.24487228e.2019.1.357.

Highly skilled Mexican migrants have benefitted from the opportunities offered by U.S. visa programs such as the specialty occupation visa (H-1B), the treaty investor visa (E-2), the EB-5 investor program, and the North American Free Trade Agreement professionals visa (TN). This essay analyzes the possible changes affecting these visas and identifies their main economic, social, and political implications. It uses two main approaches: the mixed-embeddedness framework and transnational theory. U.S. immigration reform has forced some skilled migrants to think about transnational spaces in order to reduce uncertainty. E-2 and EB-5 visa holders may diversify risks through a parallel presence of their businesses in both the United States and Mexico. H-1B holders may think about enhancing their research networks with the Mexican scientific and academic community. TN holders may return and transfer their knowledge back to Mexico. Overall, the improvement of Mexico’s institutional environment is crucial for further avoiding the exit of valuable social and cognitive capital.

Palabras llave : highly skilled migration; specialty occupation working visa; treaty investor visa; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) professionals.

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