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Economía UNAM

versión impresa ISSN 1665-952X

Resumen

ALBERRO, José. Estimates of the cost of eradicating poverty in Mexico with a negative Income Tax using the ENIGH 2016. Economía UNAM [online]. 2018, vol.15, n.43, pp.43-55. ISSN 1665-952X.  http://dx.doi.org/10.22201/fe.24488143e.2018.43.382.

The article estimates both the fiscal cost and the impact on the Gini Coefficient of the income distribution of introducing in Mexico a Negative Income Tax on personal income (INR) that eradicates extreme poverty. The scheme mandates the State to cover the difference between a given level of income and the income of the beneficiary, based on a formula and not on a bureaucratic mechanism. To foster transparency and administrative simplicity, only Mexican citizens over the age of 18 who file an income tax return would be entitled to this transfer. The INR parameters can be set so that it does not penalize a beneficiary’s efforts to increase their income. We use the ENIGH 2016 to estimate the consequences of the introduction of an INR in Mexico. The main result is that with .85% of the GDP, 26.8 million Mexicans over the age of 18 can have an income higher than the minimum welfare level (LBM) thereby eradicating extreme poverty in urban areas, while totally eliminating poverty in rural areas. As a result, the Gini Coefficient of the distribution of income will decrease by 7.8%. The fiscal cost of introducing an equivalent Universal Income is eight times more. Postulating that it is feasible is a chimera, a delirium.

Palabras llave : Measurement and Analysis of Poverty Taxation Public Policy.

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