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Enfermería universitaria

versión On-line ISSN 2395-8421versión impresa ISSN 1665-7063


COUSELO-FERNANDEZ, I.  y  RUMBO-PRIETO, J.M.. Diabetic foot risk and self-care shortfalls among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. Enferm. univ [online]. 2018, vol.15, n.1, pp.17-29. ISSN 2395-8421.


To explore the risk factors associated with diabetic foot, and the level of knowledge on self-care, in a sample of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients (DM2) from an urban health center.


This is an observational and descriptive study in the area of nursing interventions in Primary Attention. Collected data included clinical history, clinical assessment, and the results of an ad hoc questionnaire on DM2 associated risk factors, and the self-care knowledge level. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated.


There were 42 male and 31 female patients with a mean age of 69.1 years old. 65.8% had been diagnosed with DM2 longer than 10 years ago. The median value of HbA1c was 6.9%, which was higher among males (p = 0.02). A higher risk of suffering vascular and kidney-related complications was observed among males as well (p = 0.04), whereas a higher presence of deformities such as calluses and hallux valgus was observed among females (p < 0.01). Shortfalls in knowledge, including those on daily feet hydration (p < 0.01) and the use of adequate shoes (p < 0.01) were observed in more than half of these patients.


The control of the related risk factors must be improved by the patients in our study. Moreover, their knowledge shortfalls were related to the inadequate fulfillment of the corresponding recommendations. Thus, and considering the Evidence-Based Practice, it is necessary to better prepare these patients so that they can better control their diabetic foot risks.

Palabras llave : Diabetic foot; diabetes mellitus type 2; diagnostic tests, routine; nursing care; self-care: primary health care; Spain.

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