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Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México

versión impresa ISSN 1665-1146

Resumen

ARCE-LOPEZ, Karina L. et al. Maternal prenatal history and neonatal risk complications for low-weight for gestacional age term newborns. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. [online]. 2018, vol.75, n.4, pp.237-243. ISSN 1665-1146.  http://dx.doi.org/10.24875/bmhim.m18000032.

Background:

Low-birth-weight (LWB < 2.5 kg or <10 percentile) could be caused by constitutional matters or by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), both with different neonatal complications. Without an adequate prenatal evaluation is hard to stablish those conditions. Knowing the maternal history for gestational diseases (MHGD) such as hypertension (HTA), hypothyroidism or diabetes, among others could help clarify that difference. The aim of this work was to determine if having a MHGD is associated to neonatal complications in newborns with LWB.

Methods:

Retrospective cohort study, which included 349 with LWB at term (≥ 37 weeks of gestation [WG]) grouped into those with or without MHGD at a hospital nursery. The frequency of respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia was determined.

Results:

16.6% (58/349) had MHGD (58.6% for HTA and 41.3% hypothyroidism alone or combined). The neonate with MHGD were more borderline term (37 WGA, 55.2% vs. 35.1%; p = 0.037), and had lower weight (difference of ≈100 g; p = 0.028), had more cases with hypoglycemia (13.6%; CI 95%: −4.08 to 31.2%) but developed less respiratory distress (RD) (difference of −4.7%; CI 95%: −20.6 to 11.05%). Hypoglycemia in 39 WGA was only seen among neonates without MHGD (difference 12.7%; CI95%: 3.9 to 31.5%) just as for the hyperbilirubinemia cases (three).

Conclusions:

Inquiring about the MHGD on LBW term babies could be useful in the inference of IUGR, although we need other tools so that altogether can help to predict possible complications and to plan preventive actions.

Palabras llave : Low-birth weight; Intrauterine growth restriction; Maternal history of gestational disease.

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