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Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México

versión impresa ISSN 1665-1146

Resumen

LOPEZ-GONZALEZ, Desirée; MENDEZ-SANCHEZ, Lucía; GUAGNELLI, Miguel Ángel  y  CLARK, Patricia. Vitamin D deficiency in childhood: an opportunity for prevention. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. [online]. 2015, vol.72, n.4, pp.225-234. ISSN 1665-1146.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmhimx.2015.01.011.

The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric population has increased in recent years and continues to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. According to data from the "ENSANUT 2006" (National Health and Nutrition Survey), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Mexico was 16% in children aged 2-12 years. Vitamin D plays a critical role in the formation and bone homeostasis and consequently on growth. Its deficiency is clearly associated with diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia, and it has been linked to other diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, respiratory infections and immune system disease. Specific risk groups have been described in the medical literature for vitamin D deficiency in which supplementation may offer a benefit. Currently, there is still controversy in defining the serum levels of proficiency and dose supplementation. In Mexico, the daily suggested intake of vitamin D is 5.6 µg (224 IU), which is significantly lower than the recommendations in the U.S. and Europe (i.e., between 400 and 1000 IU/day).

An increase in vitamin D deficiency has been reported in recent years. There is no consensus regarding the sufficiency levels of vitamin D. Cut-off values vary from 20 to 30 ng/ml. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide an overview of the problem in the pediatric population and to describe the groups at risk, as well as to analyze the current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation.

Vitamin D deficiency was considered rare in Mexico according to the National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán. Lack of evidence did not help to establish the international recommended daily intake. Currently, vitamin D deficiency must be recognized as a health problem, worthy of attention and action. We suggest that prospective studies are carried out in our country where the relationship between serum vitamin D deficiency and poor bone mineralization will be established.

Palabras llave : Vitamin D deficiency; Pediatrics; Adolescents; Recommended daily intake; Suggested daily intake.

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