Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México
versión impresa ISSN 1665-1146
TABOADA ARANZA, Olga; TORRES ZURITA, Anabel; CAZARES MARTINEZ, Claudia E. y OROZCO CUANALO, Leticia. Prevalence of malocclusions and speech disorders in a preschool population in eastern Mexico City. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. [online]. 2011, vol.68, n.6, pp.425-430. ISSN 1665-1146.
Background. In regard to conditions of the oral cavity in children, malocclusions occur with a prevalence of 60%, whereas the most common speech disorder among school-age children are the changes in pronunciation known as dyslalias, with a prevalence of 70%. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of malocclusions and speech disorders in a 4- to 6-year-old preschool population in eastern Mexico City. Methods. We performed an observational, prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study. Clinical assessment of malocclusion was performed at the base of the terminal planes and the diagnosis of speech disorders was made using the test of Melgar, considering the categories with and without speech disorders. Results. Data were processed using SPSS v.11 and descriptive statistics were obtained from the study variables. The results allowed the observation that the revised total number of preschool-age children, 61% (n = 48) presented malocclusions, whereas speech disorders occurred in 42% (n = 39). In our study, however, no association was demonstrated between malocclusions and speech disorders. Both conditions were present and 40% (n = 19) of preschool-age children showed the presence of malocclusions and speech disorders; 42% (n = 13) had no malocclusions but demonstrated speech disorders. Conclusions. The prevalence of malocclusion and speech disorders in preschool-age children in this community is considered as a health problem.
Palabras llave : prevalence; malocclusion; speech disorders; preschool-age children.