Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México
versión impresa ISSN 1665-1146
GUTIERREZ-PADILLA, José Alfonso et al. Neonatal abstinence syndrome in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. [online]. 2008, vol.65, n.4, pp. 276-281. ISSN 1665-1146.
Introduction. To our knowledge, in spite of the increasing drug-abuse statistics in Mexican pregnant women, there are no published clinical researches approaching this issue in our country. We describe the characteristics of neonatal abstinent infants admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) located at the Hospital Civil of Guadalajara. Objective: To describe the characteristics of a sample of neonatal abstinent children as well as the efficacy of phenobarbital as a pharmacological alternative. Methods. Children from drug dependent mothers who were admitted to NICU from January 1st 2003 to December 20th 2007 and developed the neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) were prospectively evaluated with a structured feedback form including parental data. Results. Ninety two NAS cases (3.5% of the total) were recruited in the assessed period. Mother's mean age was about 22 years with a low educational profile. The most common drug consumed by the mothers was cocaine (35%). Ten mothers had HIV-positive results, while the neonatal averaged gestational age was 37 weeks. Birth weight, corporal size and Apgar score mean values were 2 600 g, 47 cm and 9 points, respectively. The most common symptom was irritability in 77% of the patients. All the cases were treated with phenobarbital reaching a successful clinical remission of the symptoms. Conclusions. NAS represented the 3.5% of all the neonate patients admitted in NICU throughout 4 years. Our observations correspond to those previously reported in the literature. High incidence of concomitant infectious conditions was observed -especially HIV- and the predominant used drugs were cocaine and marijuana. Due to its high incidence and clinical relevance, drug-abuse during pregnancy ought to have further study in our country.
Palabras llave : Neonatal abstinence syndrome; pregnancy; drug addiction.