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Archivos de cardiología de México

versión On-line ISSN 1665-1731versión impresa ISSN 1405-9940


RAYMUNDO-MARTINEZ, Grecia I.M. et al. Gender differences in cardiology professionals: A Latin American Survey. Arch. Cardiol. Méx. [online]. 2022, vol.92, n.1, pp.11-18.  Epub 07-Feb-2022. ISSN 1665-1731.


Gender-based differences among cardiology professionals have been reported in North America and Europe. However, the perspective of Latin American cardiologists remains unexplored.


The objectives of the study were to analyze the gender gap perspective among cardiologists from Latin America.


A cross-sectional study using an online survey directed to Latin American cardiologists from five different cardiology societies. The survey included questions on demographic data, professional development in the field of cardiology, and perceived barriers in clinical practice.


A total of 240 professionals were surveyed, of which 41.7% were women (100) and 58.3% were men (140). The majority of women tend to work in the subfields of clinical cardiology and cardiovascular imaging. Women were underrepresented as heads of departments, earn less, and report less work satisfaction than men. The barriers that female cardiologists face at their workplace include labor discrimination, sexual harassment, family-related concerns, and lack of career development.


The survey points toward the prevalence of a gender gap among cardiologists in Latin America, which is primarily driven by labor discrimination, sexual harassment, family-related concerns, and lack of career development among female cardiologists. Actions aimed at addressing this issue should be considered by different parties.

Palabras llave : Gender inequality; Cardiology; Latin America.

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