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Archivos de cardiología de México

versión On-line ISSN 1665-1731versión impresa ISSN 1405-9940


VELAZQUEZ MONROY, Óscar  y  GRUPO ENSA 2000 et al. Hypertension in Mexico: The Health National Survey (ENSA) 2000. Arch. Cardiol. Méx. [online]. 2002, vol.72, n.1, pp.71-84. ISSN 1665-1731.

Aims. Hypertension remains as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity in México. The Health National Survey 2000 of México was performed to analyze the current status of the prevalence of some risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension (HTA), obesity, smoking, and proteinuria. Methods. A National Survey was carried out in México where 45,300 individuals between 20 to 69-y.o. were screened. The estimated sample size was calculated considering the total number of persons into the mentioned age; a minimal prevalence of 6% of the included risk factors, at a significance level of 0.05; a maximum relative error of 0.145, and a rate of response of at least 70%. Diagnosis of HTA was accepted in: previous medical diagnosis with prescription of antihypertensive drugs, or high blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg) detected during the interview. Data were adjusted for the national distribution of age-groups and gender (established in 2000, INEGI). Results. 38,377 (98.8%) individuals were correctly screened for blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in México was 30.05% (34.2% in men and 26.3% in women). The prevalence was directly related with age and gender. The percentage of mexicans with HTA after 50-y.o. is > 50%. The prevalence was greater in women after 50-y.o. Among persons with hypertension, treatment was detected in 46% and ~ 20% of them were controlled (<140/90mmHg). The percentage of mexicans with HTA who were unaware that they have high blood pressure was 61%. The total percentage of HTA controlled was 14.6%. The North states had the greater prevalence (~ 34%) of HTA while South states had the lower prevalence (27%). The odds ratio (age/sex-adjusted) for HTA were: for diabetes 1.54(CI95%, 1.44 - 1.63); for obesity 2.3 (CI 95%, 2.22 - 2.43); for smoking 1.26 (CI95%, 1.21 - 1.32). For proteinuria subjects, 40% had HTA. Conclusions. Around 15 millions of mexicans between 20 to 69-y.o. had hypertension, 60% of them are unaware. The prevalence of hypertension in México (30.05%) has increased. Among persons with hypertension ~ 15% are controlled. The North of México has the higher prevalence of hypertension. Diabetes, smoking, and obesity increase the risk of hypertension. The 2000 National Survey of Health shows the epidemiological trend in several important chronic diseases in México and declare an urgent need of new strategies for detection, control and treatment of hypertension.

Palabras llave : National Survey; Hypertension; México; Public health.

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