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Cuestiones constitucionales

versão impressa ISSN 1405-9193


GARCIA ROCA, Javier. Parliamentary oversight and fusion between parlamentarism and presidentialism. Cuest. Const. [online]. 2017, n.37, pp.3-49. ISSN 1405-9193.

It is perfectly possible to compare presidentialism and parlamentarism with regard to controls. Without parliamentary oversight representative democracy does not exist. Constitutional norms and Standing Orders already reflect this tendency in Latin America. This conclusion leads us to a different approach to the classic controversy on both systems of government. The original US presidential system is somewhat outdated and difficult to export. The binomial presidentialism/parlamentarism is nowadays more a continuum with differences in degree. Three tendencies can be detected: European parliamentarism has evolved towards presidential leadership, Latin American presidentialism has incorporated parliamentary tools, and, finally, cross-fertilization among Parliamentary Standing Orders has developed. Extreme multiparty systems, proportional representation, and an absolutist understanding of presidential separation of powers which makes parliamentary oversight impossible are incompatible features. The easiest solution emerges from abandoning that separatist interpretation. The idea that the President should be directly accountable to the electorate and not to the Parliament make difficult mechanisms of political responsibility, but certain devices of oversight could be enough to achieve checks and balances.

Palavras-chave : presidentialism; parlamentarism; political control; oversight.

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