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Agrociencia

versión On-line ISSN 2521-9766versión impresa ISSN 1405-3195

Resumen

OSUNA-ENCISO, Tomás et al. Reproductive phenology, yield and fruit quality of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus (how.) Britton and Rose) in Culiacan valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. Agrociencia [online]. 2016, vol.50, n.1, pp.61-78. ISSN 2521-9766.

In Sinaloa, Mexico, irregularity and shortage of rainfall has decreased water availability in dams and modified crops pattern. The pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton and Rose) demands few amounts of water, is capable to adapt to different soil types and is an option for crop reconversion. The objective in this study was to determine the reproductive phenological behavior, productivity and quality of pitahaya fruits from the Culiacán Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. This study was conducted throughout 2008, 2009 and 2010, on a 2 ha plantation of pitahayas planted 3.0 3.0 m away, with a density of 1111 plants ha-1 and shade (irradiance=420 W m-2) provided by “Guamuchil” trees [Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth]. Plants had between five and seven blooms in the year; flowering started in June and was completed during September and October. The flowering onset was associated with the temperature and relative humidity increase; in summer and autumn the flowers reached anthesis on 2 and 3 weeks. Similar behavior was observed in the fruit development; during the summer the period from anthesis to maturity was 4 weeks and in autumn the process lasted 6 weeks. Fruits were oblong and their weight ranged between 372 to 638 g, from which the pulp weighted between 55.1 and 72.2 %. Yields during the third, fourth and fifth years of the plantation were 10.9, 13.4 and 10 Mg ha-1. The fruits met quality indicators of external color (14.4 H*), total soluble solids (14 °Brix), titratable acidity (0.6 % malic acid) and total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio (26.2). Yield and physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit quality were similar to those of other producing regions in Mexico and abroad.

Palabras llave : Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton and Rose; phenological stage; flowering cycle; anthesis; harvest; fruit quality.

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