Print version ISSN 1405-3195
ZEPEDA-BAUTISTA, Rosalba; CARBALLO-CARBALLO, Aquiles and HERNANDEZ-AGUILAR, Claudia. Genotype-environment interaction in structure and nixtamal-tortilla quality of kernel in maize hybrids. Agrociencia [online]. 2009, vol.43, n.7, pp. 695-706. ISSN 1405-3195.
Maize farmers from the High Central Valleys (high central valleys) of México demand kernel varieties of quality to meet the expectations of the tortilla industry, as well as knowing the effect of the environment on this crop. An evaluation was made of the physical quality and structural components of kernel, nixtamal and tortilla in corn hybrids (Zea mays L.) resulting from a genetic improvement program launched in 1998 at the Colegio de Postgraduados (CP). During each spring-summer cycle of 2004 and 2005 eight hybrids were cultivated at the CP Montecillo Campus, in Montecillo, México, in a completely randomized block design with two repetitions. On the basis of the Norm NMX-FF-034/1-SCFI-2002 and the assessment made by the INIFAP Corn Laboratory, the hybrids MT-810, MT-1420, MT-131, MT-2223, MT-1415, MT-421, PROMESA and HS-2 meet the parameters for the preparation of tortillas and nixtamalized corn products. In 2005, the percentages of reflectance (color) and grain endosperm were higher (7.85 %) than in 2004 (2.82 %). In 2005, the flotation index rose in hybrids MT-810, MT-1420 and MT-1415, and dropped in MT-131, MT-2223 and HS-2. The climate and edaphic characteristics of the production site among years significantly modified (p<0.05) the percentages of endosperm, germ, pericarp and pedicel, as well as the characteristics of nixtamal and tortillas, in different proportions in terms of variety.
Keywords : Zea mays L.; endosperm; flotation index; nixtamalization; High Valleys.