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Polibotánica

versão impressa ISSN 1405-2768

Resumo

REYES-JARAMILLO, Irma. Edaphic properties plots cultivated with milpa using minimum tillage in the mountains of Oaxaca, where there was mountain cloud forest. Polibotánica [online]. 2016, n.41, pp.133-155. ISSN 1405-2768.  https://doi.org/10.18387/polibotanica.41.9.

Soil fertility in the first 20 cm of six plots and a cloud forest (MCF) still preserved in Santa María Chilchotla, north of Oaxaca, where the predominant MCF and grown landraces were evaluated. The soils are on slopes are shallow, rocky and not suitable for agriculture. Yields are low, the Mazatec perform traditional cultural practices such as minimum tillage as the terrain does not allow entering tractor or oxen, farmers do not burn, and do not use chemicals. Soil sampling randomly obtaining composite samples were made physical, chemical and biological properties were analyzed. The results showed that are medium textured soils, the pH of the MCF is extremely acid (4.5) and in the plots ranged from 5 to 6.9, organic carbon is high from 24 to 100 g kg-1, total nitrogen ranged from 1.4-8.3 g kg-1 medium and high values, available phosphorus was low with the exception of the plot three, the CEC ranged from 8.8 to 36 cmolesc kg-1. They have high iron content of 20.26 to 94.18 mg kg-1 on BMM standing there also high in copper, zinc and manganese. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference (р < 0.5) between the means of soil properties and soil analyzed than sodium. The multiple comparison test of Tukey was applied. Trap pots mycorrhizal fungi were isolated from different species. It is concluded that the soils of most of the plots are fertile, they are poor in phosphorus, but everything indicates that they make up the AM fungi; no physical degradation was observed, its major limitation is the stoniness and steep slopes. The practice of minimum tillage, barriers of rocks that outcrop at the surface and leaving stumps of tree ferns prevent erosion. It aims to increase maize production experimenting with chemical fertilizers. To preserve the MCF recommends building their biological and ethnobotanical wealth, carbon sequestration Mazatec could receive a financial benefit.

Palavras-chave : cloud forest; soil fertility; milpa; maize; Mazatec.

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