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Polibotánica

versão impressa ISSN 1405-2768

Resumo

KANTUN-BALAM, Jesús et al. Diversity and geographical origin of the plant resource in the home gardens from Quintana Roo, Mexico. Polibotánica [online]. 2013, n.36, pp.163-196. ISSN 1405-2768.

The home garden (HG) is an agricultural system that functions as a source of natural resources and space for the management and conservation of native and introduced plant species. An example of its importance is presented in the Maya area of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The Spanish conquest is a fundamental aspect in the development and progression of HG, an event which favored the introduction of plant species, helping to enrich and diversify the flora of the region. Currently, this introduction is a process favored by commercial globalization, a phenomenon that has led to changes in HG due to the abandonment of farming activities and the pursuit of economic resources beyond. In the Yucatan Peninsula, this is seen most clearly in the state of Quintana Roo, where economic development has led many Mayan peasants migrate from their communities to find work in the tourist areas. To know the current status of plant resources, we studied the diversity and geographical origin of the plant species present in the HG of Quintana Roo. HG 120 were characterized in three regions of the state: northern, southern and Maya. 449 species were recorded for 93 families and 329 genera. The best family Fabaceae was represented with 9.35% and was the best represented genus Citrus with 2.0%. The region with the greatest diversity was the north (H'= 5.684). Introduced species were mostly of American origin (65.8%). Recently, globalization has led to the introduction of Asian species such as neem (Azadirachta indica) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). This shows the importance of this phenomenon in the richness and diversity of current home garden from Quintana Roo.

Palavras-chave : home garden; plant diversity; geographical origin; Quintana Roo.

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