Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura
versão impressa ISSN 1027-152X
LAGUNES-ESPINOZA, L. del C.; GALLARDO-LOPEZ, F.; BECERRIL-HERNANDEZ, H. e BOLANOS-AGUILAR, E. D.. On-farm genetic diversity and cropping system of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata at the Chontalpa region in Tabasco, Mexico. Rev. Chapingo Ser.Hortic [online]. 2008, vol.14, n.1, pp. 13-21. ISSN 1027-152X.
Genetic diversity of grain legumes and its cropping system was determined to identify indigenous cultivars used by farmers at the Chontalpa region, Tabasco State, Mexico. Direct interviews to 536 farmers were conducted from January to May, 2002. Nineteen indigenous bean populations were collected among the farmers in the region. Eight of them belong to the Phaseolus vulgaris specie and the rest to the Vigna unguiculata specie. Only 30.6% of the farmers grew indigenous cultivars. The largest genetic diversity is preserved in the Cárdenas County. Monoculture was the predominating bean cropping system in the region; it was used by 65.8% of the farmers interviewed. Jamapa (black bean) is the main cultivar used in the monoculture system. Cropping area by farmer ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 ha. A 34.5% of farmers do not use chemical fertilizers and 50.7% of them mentioned that only foliar fertilization during the flowering initiation period is made. Chemical pest and disease control is made by the 100% of the farmers interviewed. Only in Cunduacán County, 60% of the bean production is for selling, in the rest, bean production is for self-consumption. Regional farmers have a precise knowledge of indigenous cultivars. This diversity needs to be valued for its conservation and improvement.
Palavras-chave : on-farm crop diversity; black beans; cowpea; production systems; Phaseolus vulgaris; Vigna unguiculata; genetic erosion.