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Agricultura técnica en México

versión impresa ISSN 0568-2517

Resumen

HORTELANO SANTA ROSA, René et al. Morphological diversity of maize landraces from the Puebla Valley. Agric. Téc. Méx [online]. 2008, vol.34, n.2, pp. 189-200. ISSN 0568-2517.

To assess the existing level of morphological diversity, and the racial types present among maize landraces in the Puebla Valley region, Puebla, Mexico, an evaluation was conducted during the year 2004. It included a set of 58 samples from 35 communities located in the microregions La Malinche, Iztaccihuatl-Popocatepetl and Valle, as well as six controls, representatives of the Conico, Conico Norteño, Chalqueño and Cacahuacintle races. Experiments were planted at three locations, one for every microregion. For each sample, 21 morphological traits were recorded. The analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among samples for all variables. This was taken as an evidence of the presence of a considerable morphological variability. The principal components and cluster analyses based on 18 selected traits divided the samples in two sets, considering grain color: the pigmented ones and the white ones. The first group had the lower values for phenological, vegetative, ear and grain traits, while the second had higher values for the same variables. A progressive and continuous differentiation of traits within each major group was detected, which allowed the definition of subgroups. The available evidences indicate that the landraces from the Puebla Valley, diverge from the Conico type materials, and have some similarity with Chalqueño types, mainly with the Chalco Crema subtype. The similarity was more evident among the white grain materials since the pigmented ones departed notably from the subtype mentioned. The presence, although scarce, of samples related to the Cacahuacintle race was detected.

Palabras llave : Conico Race; Chalqueño Race; Genetic diversity; Maize races.

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