Agricultura técnica en México
Print version ISSN 0568-2517
ACOSTA-RODRIGUEZ, Gerardo Francisco; LUJAN-FAVELA, Manuel and PARRA-QUEZADA, Rafael Ángel. Growth and yield of garlic cultivars in Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Agric. Téc. Méx [online]. 2008, vol.34, n.2, pp. 177-188. ISSN 0568-2517.
In Chihuahua state exists a high potential for production of garlic (Allim sativum L.) of hihgt quality. The garlic cultivars present phenotypic and morpholigical differences, and temperature and photperyod have effect in your adaptability. The goal of this study was to determine the cultivars with higher yield and bulb quality, and to analyze the growth plant. The studies were carried out in the autumm-winter cycles 2001-2004 (planting dates were october 4, 15 and 24, respectively), in the fields of the Delicias Reseach Station (INIFAP). Sixteen cultivars were tested, the plots were distributed in a randomized block design with four replications and useful plots of 4 m2. The genotypes (cloves) were established in furrows (80 cm of width in two row of plants and distance of planting between plants was 8 cm). Variance analyses (α < 0.0 1 and 0.05) and Tukey test at 0.05 of significance were applied. The production cycles had significative effect over leaf final lenght, leaves number at harvest, cloves and weight per bulb, and bulb quality (on the basis of diameter). The cultivars had significance in leaf final lenght, leaves number at harvest, cloves and weight per bulb, bulbs yield and bulbs with diameter higher 5.3 cm quality (on the basis of diameter). In the three production cycles Del-1, Chino CEDEL, Chino Calera and Coreano had the highest values of leaves number at harvest (12.2 to 12.8). Cloves number was highest in cv. Del-45 (13.2 cloves). The best yields were obtained in Chino Calera (14.323 t ha-1), Coreano (13.197 t ha-1) and Chino CEDEL (13.097 t ha-1); although Coreano had the highest percent of cloves with diameter higher then 6.5 cm (9%) and 6 cm (18%).
Keywords : Allium sativum L.; genotypes; bulbs yield.