Agricultura técnica en México
versión impresa ISSN 0568-2517
ACOSTA-DIAZ, Efraín et al. Biomass and yield of common bean flor de junio type under irrigation and water stress. Agric. Téc. Méx [online]. 2007, vol.33, n.2, pp. 153-162. ISSN 0568-2517.
In the state of Zacatecas, Mexico 200 thousand ha of dry bean Flor de Junio class are annually sown, and its yield average is 315 kg ha-1. This low yield is due to intermittent drought during the growing season. The objective was to determine the effect of different soil moisture levels on plant maturity, shoot and root dry weight per plant, root-shoot ratio and yield of four bean genotypes. In 2002, two trials were conducted; one under greenhouse conditions and the other in the field at the Unidad de Agronomía of the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. In the greenhouse four soil moisture levels in 3 kg pots were evaluated; one without drought and three from moderate to severe stress: a) irrigated (R), 100% of the evapotranspired water was restituted every 12 h during the cycle, b) moderate drought (SM), 75% of the volume of R was restituted, c) severe drought (SS), 50% of the volume of R was restituted and d) moderate drought during the vegetative stage and severe drought during the reproductive stage (SMV+SSR). In the field, two treatments were tested: rainfed (S), depending on rainfall and rainfed plus supplemental irrigation (S+R), with rainfall, contribution and three irrigations as needed. The stress treatments affected negatively all traits in the genotypes in comparison with R and S+R treatments in greenhouse and field, respectively. In the greenhouse; in comparison to the control (R) the average reductions observed with the SMV+SSR treatment were: seven days to mature, 26% in shoot dry weight, 44% in root dry weight and 53% in yield. The negative effects increased accordingly to the drought level applied, except for root-shoot ratio, which increased with the stress. Under field conditions, the average reductions under the rainfed treatment (S) as compared to (S+R) were: 13 days for maturity, 34% in shoot dry weight and 48% in yield. On the basis of yield reduction, drought susceptibility index and geometric mean of yield, lines UAZ FJ 2 and UAZ FJ 3 resulted drought resistant.
Palabras llave : Phaseolus vulgaris L.; bred lines; drought susceptibility index; geometric mean.