Agricultura técnica en México
versão impressa ISSN 0568-2517
AGUILAR-CASTILLO, Juan Apolinar et al. Phenotypic diversity and distinctive components in the Jala race of maize. Agric. Téc. Méx [online]. 2006, vol.32, n.1, pp. 57-66. ISSN 0568-2517.
The main objectives of this study were to determine the phenotypic diversity in the Jala race of maize (Zea mays L.) and to identify the components that distinguish it, on the basis of multiple morphological characteristics. A composite population made up of recent and old accessions of this race, named 'recovered Jala' was utilized; it was maintained through the half-sibs mating squeme. 252 families of recovered Jala were sown on April 21, 2004 at Montecillo, State of Mexico and in Jala, Nayarit on April 28. In both locations plant stand was 30 000 plants/ha with 25 plants per row. Fertilization rate was 100-50-50 (N-P-K) applied through drip irrigation in Montecillo, whereas in Jala the crop was conducted in the traditional farmer way without agrochemicals. The population displayed wide phenotypic diversity that was distributed in five groups at Montecillo and in six groups at Jala, showing larger divergence among groups in the later site, although the similitude among groups suggested a common genetic base. Ear characteristics, such as length and diameter, cob diameter and seed length allowed for a reasonable description of the diversity observed in both environments, although at Jala, Nayarit, ear height and shank diameter contributed for an accurate differentiation among groups, and the observed variation was a continuum of the typical characteristics of the race Jala. Nevertheless, two types of kernels could be differentiated, a dent and a pointed one. The diversity present in the race Jala has been originated by the constant gene flow among populations and the environmental influences characterized by low moisture and nutrients availability to which this maize has been subjected throughout its evolutionary process.
Palavras-chave : Zea mays L.; families; morphological characteristics.