Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental
versión impresa ISSN 0188-4999
Environmental education has been stimulated as a radical program for more than 30 years now (Stockholm, Belgrade, Tbilisi until the current Decade of Education for Sustainability). Various studies are showing however that most programs have a rather traditional focus and fail to pay attention to the six principles that UNESCO identified as laying at the basis of environmental education. The article shows how to meet several of the UNESCO principles in a comprehensive program. First it points at the paradigmatic nature of environmental education. Every program starts from certain paradigmatic assumptions. It is important to clarify and explicify these assumptions. To illustrate how to do this the article presents the work of Lucie Sauvé and the various paradigms on sustainability she distinguishes. The article goes on to emphasize the important position that the participants (teachers and students) have in their capacities as human beings with emotions, dreams, creative ideas, a past and visions for the future. Environmental issues often are presented as existing outside of the participants. The article claims that the participants are an integral part of the issues and they should involve themselves as 'subjects under change' in programs of environmental education. The experiential learning cycle of David Kolb is presented as a model that helps to identify various learning and change processes inside the participants as well as around the participants of environmental education. In order to really involve the participants with all their emotions, dreams and creative ideas the model of artful doing and artful knowing that is developed by Hans Dieleman is presented. This model enables to explore reality through various artful activities such as shaping, forming, mimicking and manipulating reality using a language of forms, images and metaphors. At the end the three elements presented (Sauvé, Kolb, Dieleman) are combined as elements that can form one comprehensive program with specific teaching goals and teaching methods and specific requirements for knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Palabras llave : environmental education; paradigms of sustainability; experiential learning; artful knowing.