Revista del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias
Print version ISSN 0187-7585
BAUTISTA PAREDES, LORENA; ESPARZA GUERRERO, MA. MÓNICA and ORTEGA ANGULO, JULIA. LAS ÚLCERAS POR PRESIÓN EN PACIENTES SOMETIDOS A VENTILACIÓN MECÁNICA EN LA UNIDAD DE CUIDADOS INTENSIVOS E INTERMEDIOS DEL INER. Rev. Inst. Nal. Enf. Resp. Mex. [online]. 2004, vol.17, n.2, pp. 91-99. ISSN 0187-7585.
Introduction: Decubitus pressure ulcers are a consequence of skin destruction and cause necrosis of the underlying tissue, fat and muscle. They are produced by several factors including humidity, malnutrition, obesity, underlying morbidity, high body temperature, infection and deficient peripheral blood circulation. The most frequently affected zones are the sacrum (30%), coccyx (28%), tronchanters (17%), heel (12%) and others (13%). Decubitus pressure ulcers are an important indicator of quality health care provided to patients. Since it is the nursing professionals who establish a care plan in order to prevent ulcers, they are a key element in ulcer appearance. Objective: To identify influential factors of decubitus pressure ulcer development in mechanically ventilated patients. Material and methods: This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, 42 surveys were applied to the nursing staff to evaluate their knowledge on decubitus pressure ulcers and on the health care provided to pressure ulcer patients. The second phase included an evaluation of 15 patients to identify risks of developing these ulcers. Results: The presence of decubitus pressure ulcers is high (80%), with incidence of 13% during the first week, i.e., 1 out of each 10 patients. The more frequently affected zones were heels, even though the sacrum and malleolus required more interventions. Despite management measures in the intensive and intermediate care units, 36% of the ulcers got worse. Conclusions: The most frequently used prevention maneuver is mobilization. The established frequency is twice per shift. Nutritional status is a risk factor for ulcer development, and obesity is the most closely associated. Most of the staff who answered the survey had little knowledge of any index to assess the risk of developing decubitus pressure ulcers. The health care provided to the patient is the hospital routine care.
Keywords : Nursing; decubitus pressure ulcers; Norton's index; mechanical ventilation.