Revista del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias
Print version ISSN 0187-7585
GARCIA OLAZARAN, JOSÉ GUADALUPE et al. PATOLOGÍA TRAQUEAL DIAGNOSTICADA POR FIBROBRONCOSCOPIA: EXPERIENCIA EN 111 CASOS. Rev. Inst. Nal. Enf. Resp. Mex. [online]. 2004, vol.17, n.2, pp. 67-72. ISSN 0187-7585.
Objective: To determine the malignant and benign etiology of tracheal lesions by fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) and the results of their treatment. Material and methods: Retrospective and prospective study of patients with diagnostic FOB, from October 2001 to September 2003. Histopathologic diagnosis and treatment of all lesions were recorded. ANOVA and proportions comparison with confidence limits for binomial distribution (Bernoulli) were applied. Results: Of 867 FOB, 153 (17.6%) were performed in the main airway in a total of 111 patients. Sixty-two (55.8%) were males and 49 (44.1%) females, mean age of 52 years; SD 20.15, range 3-82 years. Of these, 66/111 (59.4%) had benign lesions, the most frequent were post-intubation stenosis (41/66) and non-specific granuloma (9/66), other lesions such as extrinsic compression, tracheomalacia, tuberculosis, tracheoesophageal fistula, scleroma, strips and papillary adenoma were found. In 45/111 (40.5%) the lesion was malignant; of these, 34/45 were primarythe most common being adenocarcinoma (18/45); other tumors were epidermoid pulmonary, epidermoid laryngeal and small cell carcinoma, and metastases, and 4/45 were prostate cancer, uterine cervix carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and retroperitoneal fibromixoid sarcoma. 7/45 had local infiltration or invasion from intrathoracic tumors. ANOVA did not demonstrate differences between the percentages of stenosis of different localization. There was statistical difference between primary and metastatic malignancies p <0.05. Immediate relief of respiratory difficulty was registered following treatment. Conclusion: Site, degree of obstruction and type of tracheal lesions can be evaluated by FOB to establish the most convenient treatment for the obstruction, whether curative or palliative. Among benign lesions post-endotracheal intubation structure was the most common.
Keywords : Fiberoptic bronchoscopy; tracheal pathology; central airway; benign pathology; malignant pathology.