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Acta botánica mexicana

versión On-line ISSN 2448-7589versión impresa ISSN 0187-7151


ARTIGAS RAMIREZ, Maria Daniela  y  FERNANDEZ DA SILVA, Rafael. Morpho-anatomical characterization of secondary somatic embryogenesis in Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). Act. Bot. Mex [online]. 2018, n.122, pp.7-20. ISSN 2448-7589.

Background and Aims:

Meliaceae species are extremely recalcitrant during germination and in vitro processes. Therefore, this research focuses on characterization and optimization of a highly efficient system by secondary somatic embryogenesis in Azadirachta indica, which is an important step for enhancing secondary metabolite production and regeneration in recalcitrant species.

Material and Methods:

Leaf and cotyledon sections were induced in MS medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone, or combined with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and, abscisic acid (BA) with thidiazuron (TDZ).

Key results:

Azadirachta indica developed primary somatic embryos with BAP. Shoot and root formation occurred at low concentrations of BAP, while somatic embryogenesis was favored under high levels of BAP or TDZ. Primary and secondary somatic embryos were evidenced continuously and asynchronously. The highest amount of somatic embryos was obtained with cytokinins. However, the concentration might be significant to differentiate between primary and secondary embryos. Moreover, the auxins are key for inducing histodifferentiation in embryos. Shoot induction occurred after transfer of the embryos to hormone-free MS medium. The shoots were rooted in MS1/2.


The secondary somatic embryos were distinguished and characterized during the whole process and the efficient system was established with cotyledon sections at short term, which offers several advantages such as the production of metabolites.

Palabras llave : abscisic acid (BA); asynchronous embryogenesis; benzylaminopurine (BAP); cyclic somatic embryogenesis; thidiazuron (TDZ)..

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