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Perinatología y reproducción humana

versión impresa ISSN 0187-5337

Resumen

MINJAREZ-CORRAL, Mariana et al. Gestational weight gain as a risk factor for developing obstetric complications. Perinatol. Reprod. Hum. [online]. 2014, vol.28, n.3, pp.159-166. ISSN 0187-5337.

Gain of gestational weight is a complex phenomenon, not only influenced by maternal physiologic and metabolic changes, but also for the placental metabolism. The women that have a normal body weight index (BWI) and a gain of weight adapted during the gestation to the moment to be pregnancy present a better evolution in pregnancy and childbirth that those women with a gain of more weight to the one recommended. The women with a gain of gestational weight bigger than the increase the risk of having obstetric complications like hypertension, diabetes, coledocolitiasis, prolonged pregnancy, intra-uterine low growth, bigger percentage of complications to the birth, infections before and after the childbirth, thrombotic complications, anemia, bladder infections and disorder in the nursing. A relationship exists between the weight of the placenta and the volume the amniotic liquid, on one hand and the weight of the newly born one for other and that it probably exists also a relationship among the size of the uterus. Different types of complications exist when the gain of weight is not the appropriate one, among those that are the oldest age or similar to 40 years where a bigger risk of obstetric complications exists, this way the excessive gain of weight that can stay and even to increase after the pregnancy being therefore very difficult so that the woman to return to its ideal weight. In the first trimester (1,800 calories) should begin to include healthy ingredients. Second trimester, the fetus bends its size, to the beginning of the fourth month it is necessary to go increasing the calories intake progressively until arriving at the 2,500. Third trimester recommends an intake of 2,750 calories and to contain about 100 grams of proteins. The understanding of the determinant of the gain of weight during the pregnancy is essential for the design of the clinical interventions and of the mother's health and the baby.

Palabras llave : Pregnancy; maternal weight; obstetric complications.

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