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Perinatología y reproducción humana

Print version ISSN 0187-5337

Abstract

ARROYO-CABRALES, Leyla María; CANSECO-HERRERA, Mariana; CASTILLO-ROMERO, María Guadalupe  and  BELMONT-GOMEZ, Aurora. Addicted mothers: determination of drug levels and evaluation of growth and development of their children in the first six months of life. Perinatol. Reprod. Hum. [online]. 2012, vol.26, n.3, pp.180-186. ISSN 0187-5337.

Objective: Know the levels of marihuana, cocaine, benzodiazepines and morphine in maternal blood, umbilical cord and breast milk, in a group of addicted mothers of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatología from August 1st 2006 to July 31th 2008; and evaluate growth and development of their offspring monthly during the first six months of life. Material and methods: We performed an observational, longitudinal and prospective study, including mother-infant binomio with drug addiction during pregnancy or exposed one year before, or if their sexual partners were addicted too. For determining drug levels, samples from maternal blood, umbilical cord and breast milk, were taken and processed by enzyme immunoassay technique. Growth of infants during the first six months of life, and the neurological development were done. The data was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: The study included 54 patients; maternal age between 19-29 years in 57.4% of the cases. Two or more drugs were consumed in 38.9% of the cases and marihuana and cocaine, were the most used combination, no abstinence syndrome documented. Cocaine levels were positive in four (7%) patients; marihuana in 21 patients (38.9%); opioids in 14 (26%) patients; amphetamines in one (1.9%) patient and benzodiazepine in 18 (33.3%) cases. In the six months of follow up, there were no alterations on growth and the neurological development was normal in 85.2% of the cases. Discussion: In our society the addiction to recreative drugs is a public health problems. A close follow up of growth and neurological development is mandatory in these children and determining drug levels samples in breast milk, are necessary to achieve this goal.

Keywords : Drugs; breast milk; addicted mothers; newborn.

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