Print version ISSN 0185-3325
MARTINEZ GARDUNO, María Dolores; GONZALEZ-ARRATIA LOPEZ-FUENTES, Norma Ivonne; OUDHOF VAN BARNEVELD, Hans and DOMINGUEZ ESPINOSA, Alejandra del Carmen. Life satisfaction associated with family support in perimenopause and postmenopause. Salud Ment [online]. 2012, vol.35, n.2, pp. 91-98. ISSN 0185-3325.
In Mexico, women with 45 to 59 years of age represent almost 13.45% of the total of the female population, a number that will increase in the coming years. Based on the reference that menopause in Mexican women is present in an average range of ages from 47.3 to 49 and considering that life expectancy is 78 years, it can be deducted that women in this stage still have a third of their years left to live. In diverse publications, diverse definitions of perimenopause have been used. For the effects of this study, the Official Mexican Standard 035-SSA2-2002 was considered. In this way, perimenopause refers to the period where the signs begin, characterized by alterations in the intervals of the menstrual cycle and vasomotor symptoms. Meanwhile, menopause is amenorrea for 12 uninterrupted months, without a pathological or psychological cause, the moment from which is considered post menopause. Method The non-probabilistic sample was 300 women divided into two groups: 150 women in perimenopause and 150 in postmenopause (M=50.95 years; DE=4.072 years). In the moment of application of instruments, the women hadn't tried hormonal therapy and didn't present menopause because of early or induced ovary failure. The instruments that were applied were the satisfaction with life scale (Satisfaction With Life Scale <SWLS>) of five questions with seven answer options that went from 1 to 7. The reliability coefficient alpha of Cronbach for this sample was 0.799. The Scale of Perceived Social Support from Family (Perceived Social Support from Family <PSS-Fa>) comprised 20 items with 3 answer options (yes, no, I don't know). The scores of the scale are: 0 for no support, 1 for support. The following levels of perceived family support were: 25th percentile (1-12, perception of low family support), 50th percentile (13-18, perception of medium family support), and 75th percentile (19-20, perception of high family support). The alpha of Cronbach obtained in this study was 0.922. Results The highest percentage was occupied by women with a technical secondary school level and corresponded to a mid-higher level (30.7%). The major proportion was occupied by those who have unpaid work (33.3%), observed equally high in the proportion of women with a partner or children. The average age for the premenopausal group was 48.4 DE 2.47 and for postmenopausal women 53.67 DE 3.5. The average age for the appearance of menopause in women of the group of postmenopause was 48.55 DE 4.10. The scores of both groups for satisfaction with life and perceived family support were located above the theoretical average in their respective scales. Regarding satisfaction with life, significant statistical differences were not found in the groups of peri- and post menopause. The significant statistical differences found between the two groups were observed in schooling (p<.007) and having a partner (p<.009). The variables that correlated with the satisfaction with life were the perception of family support (Rho .541, p<.01), followed by variables of schooling (Rho .228, p<.01), occupation (Rho. 204, p<.01), and having children (Rho 162 p<.05). It was evident that the most important indicator for satisfaction with life is the perception that women have about family support (β .542, IC LI.503; LS .720 p<.001), and to the least degree occupation (β .153, IC LI.230; LS .977 p<.002). Both variables explain satisfaction of life with 31% (R2 .311).
Keywords : Satisfaction life; social support; menopause women.