Print version ISSN 0185-3325
ULLOA FLORES, Rosa Elena; PALACIOS CRUZ, Lino and SAUER VERA, Tizbé del Rosario. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: Review of treatment. Salud Ment [online]. 2011, vol.34, n.5, pp. 415-420. ISSN 0185-3325.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents is a chronic disease with poor prognosis. This article includes recommendations for the assessment and multidisciplinary treatment of pediatric patients with OCD, which includes education, pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. The evaluation must include rating scales for the severity and functional impairment, such as the Yale Brown Scale and the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale. Drug treatment is based on serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). The Food and Drug Administration approved clomipramine (CMI), sertraline, fluvoxamine and fluoxetine in this age group. Although CMI has a superior effect size than the SRIs, side effects have limited its use as a first choice. Rulizole, a glutamate antagonist, has shown tolerability and efficacy as adjunctive therapy. Comorbidity, particularly with externalizing disorders, can moderate the treatment response, thus the addition of other drugs should be considered. Psychoeducation is aimed at improving the knowledge about the illness and improving the patient's functioning. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy (CBT) has been recommended as a first treatment choice. However, the limited availability of specialists who can conduct it in the highly demanded psychiatric services in Mexico lead to recommend it as an additional treatment for patients who are already receiving psychotropic drugs and need other interventions to achieve clinical response. This review includes a treatment algorithm, which suggests to start the psychoeducation process just after confirming the diagnosis and to prescribe sertraline as a first line choice. It establishes response as a 25% reduction in the rating scales scores, if that is not reached after 12 weeks, a second drug must be evaluated; a third phase includes the addition of CBT and other drugs such as antipsychotics. The maintenance phase should last for a year. Conclusions Current treatment of pediatric OCD includes SRIs and psychosocial interventions and the management of comorbid disorders.
Keywords : Obsessive-compulsive disorder; pediatric; treatment; antidepressants; cognitive behavioral therapy.