versão impressa ISSN 0185-3325
ULLOA-FLORES, Rosa Elena; PENA-OLVERA, Francisco de la e NOGALES-IMACA, Inés. The multimodal treatment for children and adolescents with depression. Salud Ment [online]. 2011, vol.34, n.5, pp. 403-407. ISSN 0185-3325.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents is a common and impairing condition that is both recurrent and persistent into adulthood. In this article, a review of the literature regarding multimodal treatment is presented. The literature review process for this article included «adolescents», «children», «depression», «treatment», «antidepressants» and «psychotherapy» as key words. The initial Medline search covered a 10 year period dating back to 2001. Double blind randomized and meta-analysis studies were considered as gold standard to be included in the revision, but also experts' consensus were incorporated. Regarding pharmacological treatment, tricyclic-antidepressants did not show better efficacy against placebo in double blind controlled studies; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors showed better efficacy against placebo in controlled studies, specifically fluoxetine and escitalopram, both approved to be used in pediatric population with MDD. Noradrenalin and serotonin reuptake inhibitors like venlafaxine or mirtazapine had not shown superior response than placebo. Comorbidity needs to be taken into account in the decisions of the pharmacological treatment; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most frequent associated disorder and requires to add specific drug treatment like stimulants; if psychotic symptoms are present, atypical antipsychotics should be added. Regarding psychosocial treatment, psychoeducation is the first step in this treatment approach. Psychotherapy aims include decreasing symptoms severity by improving self esteem, increasing frustration tolerance and autonomy, as well as the ability to enjoy daily life activities, and establishing good relations with peers. Interpersonal and cognitive behavioral therapies are good options as psychotherapy for this age group. It is important to monitor patients to prevent relapses and complications of depression and suicidal behavior.
Palavras-chave : Child; adolescent; depression; treatment; multimodal; psychotherapy.