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Salud mental

Print version ISSN 0185-3325


CASTILLEJOS-ZENTENO, Liliana  and  RIVERA-GONZALEZ, Rolando. Association between the sensory profile, the quality of the infant-parent relationship and the child development, at three years of age. Salud Ment [online]. 2009, vol.32, n.3, pp.231-239. ISSN 0185-3325.

Since the beginning of the last century there were some differences in child-related difficulties in regulation that could not be included in the categories of diagnosis were counted, so they fitted within the learning problems, coordination problems and sometimes until the epilepsy. Decades later, each problem was subject of a separate diagnostic category, which favored the study of diseases, but fragmented the diagnosis for children who had a variety of symptoms that some of them were due to a single source. Then the diagnoses increased in coordination disorder, attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity (ADHD), the sensory integration dysfunction, language disorders, and so on. In order to complete the criteria of DSM-IV, in the case of children the Zero to Three/National Center for Clinical Programs for Infants developed a diagnostic classification for children from 0 to 3 years old (DC: O-3). The DC: 0-3, consists of five axes. The Axis I refers to the primary diagnosis, and includes the regulatory disorders and developmental disorders that affect different systems. Regulatory disorders are constitutional in nature, based on sensory problems, or sensorimotor processing, characterized by difficulties of the child to regulate their behavior, sensory, attention, motor and/or emotional, to organize positive affective states, warning or actions to calm down. The objective of the present research was to establish the association between the characteristics of the Sensory Profile, the parent-infant relationship and the psychomotor development of children. Materials and methods To assess the level of development of children was used the Conduct Development Profile, as revised (PCD-R). For the parent-infant relationship was used the Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS). Thus, to recognize a regulatory disorder it was used the Sensory Profile which assess the child's sensory processing and its impact on the daily lives of children. To fit the relationship style in one of the categories, the children and their caregiver play for about 15 minutes with three types of toys, according to the classification of Florey. Statistical analysis For data analysis were conducted descriptive statistics of the general variables and those of primary interest, test Chi2 for contingence tables test, correspondence analysis and comparison one-way variance analysis. Analyses conducted using SPSS 12.0 statistical software. Results The children had an average age of 43.2 ± 4.2 months, 50% were girls, development showed ratios of around 105 ± 15 points. The average ratios of development were higher in girls than in boys in all areas except manual skill. The characteristics of sensory profile were established on the basis of results obtained in the SP: 1 7 children (31 %) were located in the group with <<normal>> sensory profile, which refers to the scores within the parameters of typical performance or have up to two factors with likely difference; 21 children (39%) were located in the <<suspected>> group when the subjects likely to exceed two factors with difference and up to 1 factor with definitive difference, and 1 6 children (30%) in the <<regulatory disorder>> group formed by the cases that are more than three factors likely to dispute and/ or difference with more than two final (over four factors outside of the typical performance). Sections of <<auditory processing>>, <<vestibular processing>>, <<results in the behavior of sensory processing>> and <<modulation of the entry of sensory stimuli that affect the emotional responses>> were those that had a higher frequency of profiles of children outside typical behavior (50%). The section of <<modulating the entry of visual stimuli>> was the most frequent typical behavior among children (78%). In relation to the factors, the proportion of children who had values within the typical range in each of the factors of SP was 41 % to 83%, <<sensory seeking>> and <<inatention/ distractibility>> were the most affected by having more than a half of the cases outside of the typical range, while <<poor record>> and <<sensory sensitivity>> were the least altered, being over 75% of cases characterized as typical performance. At the regulatory disorders assessment boys showed more frequent regulatory disruptions, 44% respect to girls 15% (p <0.05). Additionally areas of PCD-R showed some degree of correlation with at least two areas of the SP, the <<emotional/social>> and <<expressive language>> areas of the PCD-R showed more significant correlations with sections of the SP, while <<sensory processing related to the resistance/tone>> and <<modulation related to the position of the body and movement>> sections, which were correlated with most of the development areas explored with the PCD-R. The variance analysis comparing the averages of development reached in the PCD-R, according to the SP results showed statistical differences between the averages in six of nine factors evaluated, being the regulatory disorder the group that makes a difference for the respect to two others. The results of the evaluation about the relationship between caregiver and child valued by the scale Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) DC: 0-3, did not show differences in the average ratios of development in the PCD-R among the three groups that were conducted. Nevertheless was noted that children with affected sensory profile presented problems more frequent in relation to the caregiver. Discussion Data from the study population showed values close to those reported by the respective instruments, discreetly above the expected variance similar to that described in the standardized tests. In the most of the development areas, the group of girls had the highest averages ratios. This results are similar with that are described in the literature. We also found an increased frequency of regulatory disorders in boys, 3:1 or 2:1, which could be related with by patterns of socialization. Respect the parent-infant relationship there not found differences that affect significantly the child development, evaluated with the PCD-R, unless when the relatioship was significantly affected. Differences in integrating sensory stimuli, when impact the daily life of children are related to development in different areas. The functioning of the parent-infant relationship was not a variable that changed the effect of the association between sensory profile and development, as it showed no relations with psychomotor development, but shows relations with the sensory profile of the child. In conclusion, differences in the integration of sensory stimuli, when impacting on the daily lives of children at three years old, have an association with the development so that there are areas of development that appear to be more sensitive than others in a any child who presents regulatory disorder. The functioning of the mother-child relationship showed no relations with psychomotor development, however it did with the sensory profile of the child.

Keywords : Sensory profile; infant-parent relationship; child development.

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