SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.31 número4Prevalencia del consumo riesgoso y dañino de alcohol y factores de riesgo en estudiantes universitarios de primer ingresoRelación entre el consumo de tabaco, salud mental y malestares físicos en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • No hay artículos similaresSimilares en SciELO


Salud mental

versión impresa ISSN 0185-3325


VARGAS ALVAREZ, Luis Alberto; PALACIOS CRUZ, Lino; GONZALEZ THOMPSON, Guillermo  y  DE LA PENA OLVERA, Francisco. Obsessive-compulsive in child and adolescents: An update. Part two. Salud Ment [online]. 2008, vol.31, n.4, pp.283-289. ISSN 0185-3325.

During the last years obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been reported with increased prevalence in pediatric population; this is due to the development of more specific assessment methods. This evolution in the evaluation tools has given rise to the possibility of characterizing OCD presentation in children and adolescents. In childhood, OCD is a chronic and distressing disorder that can lead to severe impairments in social, academic and family functioning. Current diagnosis criteria for pediatric OCD are the same than those used in adults. During all life span, obsessive and compulsive symptoms are necessary to establish the presence of the disorder. There are several different clinical manifestations among age groups, different evolution among children, adolescents and adults; all these represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician. Several classifications incorporate pediatric OCD, especially those related to the familiar presentation form and patterns of comorbidity, mainly with tics disorders. At least 50% of children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome develop obsessive-compulsive symptoms or OCD in adulthood and almost a half of early-onset OCD subjects have a tics history. These findings support the notion that tics disorders are the comorbidity more closely related with early-onset OCD, giving elements to consider this association as a specific pediatric OCD subtype. In this age group population, comorbidity has been reported as high as in adulthood; some diagnoses are especially prevalent during childhood and others during adolescence. On the whole, anxiety disorders are frequent with OCD, generalized anxiety disorder, panic attack, social phobia and anxiety separation disorder. Comorbidity related with affective disorders is high too. The OCD association with major depressive disorder (MDD) in childhood is low but increases in adolescence; MDD reaches similar adult comorbidity rates in adolescence. Higher comorbidity prevalence of MDD has been found more related to the duration of OCD-illness than early-onset. Bipolar disorder (BD) is another frequent comorbid entity with great clinical relevance. When BD is the main diagnosis, comorbidity with OCD shows a prevalence of 16%; when OCD is the main diagnosis, comorbidity with BD shows a prevalence of 44%, showing an unidirectional relation. Some studies have shown even higher comorbidity prevalence of BD when considering bipolar spectra dimension as hypomania and cyclothymic disorder (30% and 50%, respectively) in OCD samples. Adults with OCD and BD comorbidity have more frequent episodic form, a greater number of concurrent mayor depressive episodes and a higher rate of religious or sexual obsessions. Adults with OCD without BD comorbidity show more rituals and compulsions. A recent study in pediatric population with BD and OCD found that BD type II was the must common related diagnosis, when age was considered, subjects with bipolar disorder resulted to have an earlier onset of OCD. Other comorbid diagnoses frequently reported in this early-onset OCD population are externalizing disorders as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Children and adolescents with OCD have high rates of comorbid ADHD; this co-occurrence seems to be bidirectional. There is a consistent preponderance of males in most epidemiological studies. The onset of ADHD preceded the onset of OCD and the onset of OCD was earlier when ADHD was comorbid. Children with OCD plus ADHD compared with peers with OCD without ADHD show higher attentional and social problems, as well as aggressive high scores. ADHD is a risk factor for ODD. A valid and reliable clinical interview is needed to establish differential diagnosis among OCD and other compulsive behaviors and intrusive thoughts present in disorders like anorexia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondrias, tics disorders and impulse control disorders. All these categories have been considered as part of the obsessive-compulsive disorders spectrum. It is important to establish the difference between obsessions with poor insight common in early-onset OCD and overvalued ideas or delusions. Pervasive disorders as autism and Asperger syndrome frequently show stereotyped behaviors which may be considered as obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic evaluation of children and adolescents with OCD includes a careful assessment and review of current and past obsessive-compulsive symptoms and comorbid conditions. This evaluation requires interviewing both child/adolescent and parents and usually requires more than one session. For children who do not regard their symptoms as excessive, information from parents, and if possible from teachers, is essential to identify the range of symptoms, severity and context. Many children and adolescents feel confused and embarrassed with their symptoms. It is important to dedicate time to build a true clinical alliance to elicit the story of their symptoms, as well as the impact on a child's thoughts and feelings. There are several useful instruments to establish OCD diagnosis and severity in children and adolescents. Self-report questionnaires have been used to identify the presence and severity of OCD symptoms. The most used self-rated measures for pediatric OCD are the 44-item Leyton Obsession Inventory-Child version (LOI-CV) and its shorter version, the 20-item LOI-CV Survey Form, and the Maudsley Obsession-Compulsion Inventory (MOCI). Clinician-administered interviews may be a more reliable method to identify obsessive-compulsive disorders in youth. The Childs Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is a commonly used Clinician-Rated measure of OCD symptoms derived from the Adult Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. CY-BOCS Spanish version was translated in México and as the original version it must be applied to parents and children/adolescents separately; the clinician establishes then the best clinical information with all the data. The initial CY-BOCS section consists of a symptom checklist covering a comprehensive array of obsessions and compulsions. The severity score is derived from the second section of the measure in which global rating of time spent, interference, distress, resistance and control associated with obsessions and compulsions are generated. Separate scores are obtained for obsessions and compulsions, which, when combined, yield a total severity score of a maximum 40 points. Scores greater than or equal to 16 indicate clinically significant OCD in children and adolescents. The knowledge we now have about pediatric OCD pharmacotherapy is better. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of clorimipramine. This was the first agent approved for use in pediatric populations with OCD. Subsequent multisite randomized, placebo-controlled trials of selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have also demonstrated significant efficacy in pediatric population. Almost all meta-analysis with SSRIs studies in children and adolescents with OCD have proved their efficacy. The most common adverse effects of SSRIs are nausea, insomnia, activation and headache. These effects are transient and most children tolerate them. The availability and effectiveness of SSRI have changed dramatically the OCD treatment, and neurobiological and neuroimaging advances have supported their use. Many children and adolescents with OCD need multiple treatments including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), pharmacologic treatment, parental, family and teachers training. These interventions need to be applied by experts in order to be effective. CBT is a well-documented and effective intervention for adults with OCD. The potential usefulness of CBT for pediatric OCD has been valued and the results report that combined CBT and pharmacotherapy have proved high and sustained response in children and adolescents with OCD.

Palabras llave : Obsessive-compulsive disorder; children and adolescents; comorbidity; assessment; treatment.

        · resumen en Español     · texto en Español     · Español ( pdf )


Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons