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BEADE, Ileana Paola. Kant in the Controversy on Spinozism: Critical Rationality as an Overcoming of the Dichotomy Between Reason and Faith. Diánoia [online]. 2016, vol.61, n.77, pp.109-130. ISSN 0185-2450.

This paper analyzes the position taken by Kant in the controversy of Spinozism, which engaged many important thinkers of the German Enlightenment in a debate on the scope and limits of reason. With the publication of Was heisst: Sich im Denken orientiren? (1786), Kant takes part in the debate and rejects both the position adopted by Jacobi -who regards reason as incapable of reaching a demonstration of God's existence and thus proclaims the necessity of a "leap of faith"-, and Mendelssohn's position, who trusts in the possibilities of reason to reach such a demonstration. By means of a conception of reason as a critical and autonomous faculty, Kant attempts to go beyond both positions, and sets the scope and limits of reason in regard to the representation of God as the originating being. The concept of reason developed within the framework of the critical project exhibits its unavoidable political dimension in the text of 1786. Kant establishes there a connection between reason, critique, publicity, and politics that goes beyond the margins of the controversy and addresses fundamental issues regarding the political and juridical conditions required for an autonomous exercise of reason. However, despite the radical character of Kant's proposals, the rationalistic naturalization of religious belief represents a limit to his critical philosophy, and should be revised by the lights of current criteria.

Palavras-chave : requirement of reason; rational belief; autonomy; publicity; politics.

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