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Estudios políticos (México)

versión impresa ISSN 0185-1616


MANSILLA, H. C. F.. Las insuficiencias del marxismo crítico y los problemas del mundo contemporáneo (primera parte). Estud. polít. (Méx.) [online]. 2005, n.6, pp.57-80. ISSN 0185-1616.

Based upon less known sources and books published in Eastern Europe as well as by German speaking writers this essay retraces the evolution of "Critical Marxism", from its first offsprings (Luxemburg, Trotsky and Bujarin). The author studies with great detail the writings of Karl Korsch and Georg Lukács and ends up with a review of the existentialist standpoints of Kosik and Schaff.

He develops the idea that these dissident streams were not a truly critical Marxism, i. e. a humanistic thought and praxis, promoters of a democratic political culture. In a thoroughly documented presentation the author disc10ses that, with sorne exceptions, these writers did not c1early set that the Bolshevik regime was the dictatorship of a privileged elite of intellectuals that seized power by a conventional coup d'etat. They did not emphasize that Marxism was used as an instrument of legitimization of a totalitarian system with a technocratic vision, whose true goals were an accelerated modernization, a forced industrialization, resource productivity and output maximization.

The author explains that, with the exception of Karl Korsch, these authors were sufficiently aware that Marxism is a historical and social product, and therefore, subject to transitoriness and historicity. They agreed with the Bolshevik version, with the exception of Georg Lukács, in granting it a metaphysical status with ontological and metahistoric pretentiousness, since they did not submit this ideology to a critical analysis as a specific object to apply on it the methodology of historical materialismo

Furthermore, they did not try to adequate Marxist theory to the evolution and the complexity of the contemporary world bringing into focus the negative effects of material progress, human alienation in highly industrialized societies, environmental deterioration due to induStrialization and urban agglomeration, influence of cultural traditions, nationalism, religions, ethnic peculiarities, and the political consequences of the State's apparatus hypertrophy and highly bureaucratized proceedings typical of public services and government operations.

Palabras llave : Europa Oriental; Marxismo; Modernización; Estado convencional; Burocratización.

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