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vol.60 issue3Trends of malnutrition in Mexican children under five years from 1988 to 2016: Analysis of five national surveysTrend in the prevalence of anemia in Mexican women of childbearing age from 2006-2016. Ensanut MC 2016 author indexsubject indexsearch form
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Salud Pública de México

Print version ISSN 0036-3634


CRUZ-GONGORA, Vanessa de la; VILLALPANDO, Salvador  and  SHAMAH-LEVY, Teresa. Prevalence of anemia and consumption of iron-rich food groups in Mexican children and adolescents: Ensanut MC 2016. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2018, vol.60, n.3, pp.291-300. ISSN 0036-3634.


To describe the prevalence of anemia and consumption of iron rich groups among Mexican children and adolescents who participated in the Halfway National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2016.

Materials and methods:

Our study sample included children and adolescents who provided full capillary hemoglobin data. Anemia was defined according to WHO criteria. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association among consumption of iron-rich food groups, sociodemographic characteristics and anemia.


In 2016, the prevalence of anemia was 26.9% in children aged 1 to 4 years old, 12.5% in those aged 5 to 11, and 9.6% in adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Rates were the highest among females who lived in the southern and central parts of Mexico, belonged to an indigenous ethnic group and fell within the first tercile of the Household Wealth Index. Consumption of beef by preschoolers and viscera by adolescents was associated with lower risk for anemia; higher risk was associated with consumption of Liconsa milk and non-heme iron by preschoolers.


Anemia is highly prevalent in Mexican children and adolescents, affecting mainly the poorest and youngest populations. Sources of heme iron are the principal dietary factor associated with low risk for anemia.

Keywords : anemia; children; adolescents; iron-rich food groups; Mexico.

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