Revista de investigación clínica
Print version ISSN 0034-8376
Objective. To identify risk factors associated with birth trauma. Setting. Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González", Secretaría de Salud. Design. Case-control, prolective study. Patients. There were 129 cases and 134 controls. Measures. We recorded the following variables: a) maternal and delivery: age, weight, height, prenatal care, pre-existing disease or gestational disease, mode of delivery, anesthetic management during labor, use of external maneuvers or forceps; b) newborn: birth weight, gestational age, academic degree of attendant physician at delivery, and type of birth injury. Results. The independent risk factors associated to birth injury were: for ecchymoses; general anesthesia (OR 13.7, 95% CI - 3 - 62.6), breech presentation (OR 6.4, 95% IC 95% = 1.4 - 27.9) and gestational age < 32 weeks (OR 6.4, 95% CI = 1.3 - 31.1); for lacerations, vaginal dystocic delivery or cesarean section (OR 19, 95% CI = 4.4 - 81.1) and use of external maneuvers (OR 5.6, 95% CI = 1.5 - 21.6); for cephalhematoma maternal height < 1.54 m (OR 7.4, 95% CI = 2.3 - 23.7) and external maneuvers (OR 7.2, 95% CI = 2.3 - 23.7); for caput succedaneum, external maneuvers (OR 3.4, 95% CI = 1.5-7.7) and maternal age < 19 or > 36 years (OR 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 - 6.4). Conclusions. Risk factors associated with birth injuries identified in this study involved maternal conditions, neonatal conditions and mechanism of delivery.
Keywords : Birth injuries; Birth trauma; Macrosomia; Cephalhematoma; Risk factors; Cesarean section delivery; Forceps.