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Revista de investigación clínica

Print version ISSN 0034-8376

Abstract

SANTILLAN-DOHERTY, Patricio et al. Lung transplantation. Rev. invest. clín. [online]. 2005, vol.57, n.2, pp.350-357. ISSN 0034-8376.

Lung transplantation (LT) has evolved to become an Important alternative in the management of patients with end-stage pulmonary disease and chronic respiratory failure. The beginnings of this technique can be traced back to the experiments of Carrel and Guthrie over a hundred years ago. However, it was not until 1963 when the first clinical experience was performed by Hardy. Clinical success did not arrive until the 1980's thanks to the works of the Toronto Lung Transplant Group. Well established criteria have been described in order to consider a patient as a potential candidate to receive a lung. Several diseases are capable of causing terminal lung damage and in general they can be classified according to their origin as obstructive (COPD, emphysema), restrictive (fibrosis), chronic infectious (cystic fibrosis, bronquiectasis), and vascular (primary pulmonary hypertension). The most frecuent diagnosis is COPD. Clynically relevant modes of LT include the implant of one lung (single LT), or both lungs (bilateral sequential LT). Transplantation of the cardiopulmonary block is reserved for special situations and lobar transplantation is still considered experimental. Donor condition is essential to the success of LT. The potential donor patient frecuently suffers deterioration in lung function due to edema formation or infection and both complications restrict lung's using for transplantation. Lung preservation is also limited to a short period of time which rarely exceeds 6 hours in spite of specially-designed preservative solutions such as the low potassium dextran. Outcome after LT shows current one-year survival between 65-70% with reduction to 40-45% after five years. Mortality within the first year is usually related to primary graft failure and infection. Long-term survival depends on controlling infectious problems due to immunosupresion as well as the development of bronchilitis obliterans as a manifestation of chronic rejection. LT is a therapeutic modality reserved for selected patients with chronic respiratory failure due to end-stage lung disease.

Keywords : Lung transplantation; Emphysema; Lung fibrosis; Organ donation; Lung procurement.

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