Gaceta médica de México
Print version ISSN 0016-3813
ORTIZ-HERNANDEZ, Luis; DELGADO-SANCHEZ, Guadalupe and HERNANDEZ-BRIONES, Ana. Changes in factors associated with the nutrition transition in Mexico. Gac. Méd. Méx [online]. 2006, vol.142, n.3, pp. 181-193. ISSN 0016-3813.
Objectives: To describe the demographic and socioeconomic changes, food availability and food expense in Mexico during 1980-2000. Methods: From official statistics (Population Census, FAO Food Balance Sheets, Family Income and Expense National Survey and Economic Census) we estimated the evolution of population distribution according to locality size, occupational structure, woman participation in the wage-earning labor force, minimum wage, availability of food establishments and expense in food. Results: The percentage of the population that lives in urban areas has increased, they are employed in the tertiary sector, womens participation in the labor market has increased but real minimum wages have decreased. Vegetables, oleaginous, oils, fish and seafood availability have decreased whereas animal fat, vegetables, fruits, softdrinks, meats and egg availability have increased. The number of inexpensive restaurants (cocinas económicas and fondas) has also increased. Food expenses have decreased while amount of money spent in food consumed away from home has increased. Conclusions: In Mexico, the growth in urban areas and the tertiary job sector shows a parallel growth in the availability of high fat and protein food, a greater diet variety and more opportunities to consume food not prepared in the home. On the other hand, the sale of equipment and places designed for recreational physical activity have increased. By reducing employment in the primary sector it is foreseeable that labor intensive physical activity will become less important overtime.
Keywords : Mexico; nutritional transition; food availability; wage-earning labor force; food consumed away from home; physical activity.