Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Therya]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=2007-336420140003&lang=es vol. 5 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA["La Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología, A. C., Nuestra querida AMMAC", Palabras dichas en conmemoración de los 30 años de la AMMAC, el 31 de Octubre de 2014]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300695&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Descripción de una nueva especie de comadrejita ratona del género <bold>Marmosops</bold> Matschie, 1916 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300701&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>Se describe una nueva especie de marsupial perteneciente al complejo <italic>parvidens</italic> del género <italic>Marmosops</italic> a partir de material proveniente de la Cordillera de la Costa Central y Andes de Venezuela. Los caracteres diagnósticos que diferencian a este nuevo taxón del resto de sus congéneres, incluyen un tubérculo carpal pequeño en los machos, con forma de triángulo; mano con almohadilla tenar prominente con respecto al tubérculo carpal; almohadilla hipotenar pequeña y desplazada hacia el ápice de la palma respecto a la tenar; caninos superiores con sólo las cúspides accesorias posteriores, tanto en machos como hembras; forámenes lagrimales dentro de la órbita y orientados hacia la región anterior de ésta; forámenes palatinos posterolaterales grandes y alcanzando el protocono del cuarto molar superior; hueso maxilar no cubriendo completamente la región posterior del cuarto molar superior; cuarto molar inferior con dos cúspides sobre el talónido. Se añade información de historia natural y se discute la distribución actual de las restantes especies de <italic>Marmosops</italic> del grupo <italic>parvidens</italic> en Venezuela.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Within the genus <italic>Marmosops</italic> 17 species are currently recognized. Recent treatment of what has been recognized as the <italic>Marmosops</italic> parvidens group involves the recognition of five species<italic>: M. parvidens, M. pinheiroi</italic> [including <italic>woodalli</italic>], <italic>M. bishopi, M. juninensis, and M. pakaraimae</italic>. The two former and the last species occurs in Venezuela, being the identity of the single record of <italic>M. parvidens</italic> north of the Orinoco river placed in doubt by most recent authors.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>External measurements were taken from museum labels; craniodental measurements were taken with a caliper to the nearest 0.01mm. Geographic coordinates of relevant localities were taken from literature and altitudes from museum labels. Reviewed specimens (Apendix) are housed in: Museo de la Estación Biológica de Rancho Grande (EBRG, Aragua, Venezuela), Museo de Historia Natural La Salle (MHNLS, Distrito Capital, Venezuela), Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Carabobo (MZUC, Carabobo, Venezuela) and Colecão Zoológica de Mastozoología, Universidad Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil). Relevant characters of taxa unavailable to us were taken from literature.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>Recently additional material assignable to <italic>Marmosops parvidens</italic> from northern Venezuela was analyzed. Closer examination of these specimens led to the description of a new species herein proposed, which is clearly distinguished from other species of the group by a unique combination of characters, among them, a triangle-shaped carpal tubercle in males; posterior accessory cusps on the upper canines in males and females; maxilla not completely covering the fourth upper molar, and fourth lower molar bicuspid (<xref ref-type="table" rid="t2">Table 2</xref>; <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f2">Fig. 2</xref>, <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f3"><sup>3</sup></xref>, <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f4"><sup>4</sup></xref> and <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f5"><sup>5</sup></xref>). Known distribution embraces the Cordillera de la Costa Central and Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela (<xref ref-type="fig" rid="f1">Fig. 1</xref>), with an elevation span of 50 to 1850 m a.s.l.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>Before the recognition of <italic>Marmosops pinheiroi</italic> as a distinct species, many authors accepted the presence of <italic>M. p. parvidens</italic> in northern Venezuela and south of the river Orinoco (Amazonas) and <italic>M. p. pinheiroi</italic> in the south (Bolívar, Canaima National Park). More recently, the presence of <italic>parvidens</italic> was referred to the north and south of Venezuela and in sympatry with <italic>M. pinheiroi</italic> at Canaima National Park. However, examination of the specimens of <italic>Marmosops</italic> housed in Venezuelan natural history museums indicates that <italic>M. parvidens</italic> is not present in Venezuela (pending the confirmation of the identity of a single specimen from northern Venezuela housed in Washington). Equally, literature records might be misleading (e. g. the sympatry of <italic>M. parvidens and M. pinheiroi</italic> at Canaima National Park). So far, records of the new species indicate it is restricted to the mountain ranges of northern and western Venezuela.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Las áreas naturales protegidas y su papel en la conservación de los murciélagos del estado de Tabasco, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300725&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>En los últimos 50 años, Tabasco ha experimentado una disminución drástica en su vegetación original, transformándose en pastizales con fines ganaderos y terrenos agrícolas, amenazando de esta manera la biodiversidad del estado. En respuesta a ello se creó en sistema estatal de áreas naturales protegidas de Tabasco con el objetivo de proteger la biodiversidad y los servicios ecosistémicos que esta nos brinda. Los murciélagos son un grupo abundante y muy diverso, que refleja su diversidad en la variedad de servicios ecosistémicos que desempeña. Actualmente el conocimiento sobre la diversidad de murciélagos en las áreas naturales protegidas de Tabasco es pobre. En este estudio se identifica y cuantifica la riqueza de murciélagos en las diferentes áreas protegidas del estado. Los datos de la presencia de las especies de murciélagos se obtuvieron mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica de estudios realizados con murciélagos en las distintas áreas naturales protegidas del estado, así como de trabajo de campo. Se registró un total de seis familias, 35 géneros y 54 especies de murciélagos. La familia Phyllostomidae fue la que presentó mayor riqueza de especies y los frugívoros e insectívoros fueron los gremios mejor representados. Registramos 13 especies con alguna categoría de protección dentro de la NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. La mayor complementariedad entre áreas naturales protegidas se registra entre el Parque Estatal de Agua Blanca y la Reserva Ecológica Río Playa. Recomendamos realizar estudios sistemáticos dentro y fuera de las áreas protegidas, como son inventarios y estudios sobre biología y ecología de los murciélagos.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>In the last 50 years Tabasco has changed significantly its original vegetation; most of them were converted to pastureland and croplands. These changes have been threatening biodiversity. In response to this problem, system states of protected natural area was created, with the main goal of the conservation of natural systems and save guard the ecosystem. In fact the knowledge about bats in Tabasco is poor and its importance is not known in protected natural areas. This study is to identify and quantify the richness of bats species in each of the protected natural areas in Tabasco.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>The data of the presence of bat species were obtained through the research of literature studies of bats in different protected areas of the state of Tabasco and fieldwork. The literature research was performed in national and international articles. The field surveys were conducted during the period between January 2006 and December 2010. Every natural protected area was sampled one time by three consecutive nights. The bats capture was done through six mist nets.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>We registered six families, 35 gender and 55 bat species in eight natural protected areas. The family Phyllostomidae is the one who had the highest number of species (37) and the frugivore e insectivore were the most diversity trophic guild. We recorded 13 bat species that have some categories of protection in the NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. The most complementarity sites in natural protected areas were between Parque Estatal Agua Blanca and Reserva Ecológica Río Playa. The state park Agua Blanca and La Sierra are the natural areas with the highest richness in species, this shows the importance of the natural protected area in the conservation of bats.</p></sec><sec sec-type="discussion"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>The seven protected natural areas studied harbors 90 % of bat species recorded in the state, most of them in State Parks possibly the most studied ones. Although none is endangered, high percentage are species that live in large continuous forest or forest fragments and are sensitive to changes in coverage of natural vegetation. The diversity of bats reported in this study, is result to the different habitats that are represented in the different protected natural areas. This situation shows the importance of the maintaining of the different habitat types for the conservation of bat diversity in the state. We recommend systematic studies within and outside of protected areas such as inventories, studies on biology and ecology of bats.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Análisis demográfico de una especie en estado crítico de conservación: la ardilla de Perote (<bold>Xerospermophilus perotensis</bold> Merriam, 1892)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300737&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>Los parámetros poblaciones permiten conocer la viabilidad de las poblaciones, lo cual es sumamente importante para especies que se pretendan conservar. La ardilla endémica de Perote (<italic>Xerospermophilus perotensis</italic>), se encuentra clasificada a nivel nacional e internacional como una especie vulnerable a la extinción y que enfrenta serios problemas de conservación, ya que su hábitat se ha transformado y reducido drásticamente. Con el fin de obtener conocimiento acerca de las poblaciones de esta especie, entre los años 2010 y 2011 se evaluaron y compararon las densidades y estructuras poblacionales (edades, proporción de sexos y estado reproductivo) en tres sitios con diferente grado de perturbación dentro del Valle de Perote, Veracruz, México. La estructura poblacional y densidad se estudiaron mediante el método de captura-marcaje-recaptura en dos cuadros de una hectárea (por sitio), con un esfuerzo de muestreo total de 3,240 días/trampa. Los parámetros poblacionales evaluados, presentaron valores similares en los tres sitios de estudio. Las densidades fueron mayores en abril-junio (periodo reproductivo) con 24 ind/ha y menor en octubre (inicio de la hibernación) con 2 ind/ha. Respecto a las clases de edades, los adultos predominaron en los tres sitios. Los juveniles fueron más abundantes en agosto. En junio se presentó la mayor cantidad de individuos con características reproductivas (testículos escrotados, estado de preñez o lactancia). Los resultados encontrados aportan conocimiento básico sobre la ecología de esta especie que puede ser utilizado en futuros planes de conservación ya que la especie enfrenta densidades poblacionales bajas.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>The density and structure of populations are basic demographic parameters to calculate for species with a conservation concern. The endemic Perote ground squirrel (<italic>Xerospermophilus perotensis</italic>) is distributed in the Oriental Basin, in the states of Puebla, Veracruz and Tlaxcala (Mexico). At present, this squirrel is facing serious conservation problems because their habitat has been drastically reduced and transformed, mainly by the conversion to agricultural lands, causing that it only persist in small and isolated populations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and the Mexican government has classified this species as endangered and threatened respectively. Inasmuch as the species has a restricted distribution, small population and reduced habitat, our aim was to obtain the basic population parameters such as density and population structure.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>From years 2010 to 2011 we captured, marked, and recaptured individuals of X. perotensis to determine the age (juveniles and adults), weight, sex ratio and reproductive status (scrotal testes in males or pregnancy and lactation signs in females) in three sites in the Perote Valley, Veracruz, Mexico. The plant associations were the main difference among these sites. All samplings were carried out every two months just including the activity period of the squirrel (April-October).</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>The population parameters evaluated showed similar values at the three study sites (<xref ref-type="fig" rid="f1">Figure 1</xref>). The densities were higher in April-June (breeding season) with 24 ind/ha and lowest in October (beginning hibernation) with 2 ind/ha. Adults predominated in all sites (<xref ref-type="fig" rid="f2">Figure 2</xref>). Juveniles were more abundant in August. The highest number of individuals with reproductive characters (scrotal testes, pregnancy or lactation signs) was found in June (<xref ref-type="fig" rid="f3">Figure 3</xref>). Densities were higher in April-June (breeding season) with 24 ind/ha and lowest in October (beginning hibernation) with 5 ind/ha. The number of juveniles and adults showed significant differences (P = 0.002).</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>The results indicate that the population of the Perote ground squirrel is declining and shows low population recruitment. Also their habitat is being transformed rapidly and offers few opportunities for the development of the species. We suggest that the species should be categorized as an endangered species instead of threatened in Mexico. Also, farmers could allow the establishment of animals when they do not use the land, this action can stimulate the population growth.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Análisis filogenético del género <bold>Mimon</bold> Gray, 1847 (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) con la descripción de un nuevo género]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300751&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p><italic>Mimon</italic> es considerado actualmente un género monofilético conformado por dos subgéneros: <italic>Mimon</italic> (representado por <italic>M.bennettii</italic> y <italic>M. cozumelae</italic>), y el taxón anteriormente llamado <italic>"Anthorhina"</italic> (representado por <italic>M. crenulatum</italic> y <italic>M. koepckeae</italic>). Sin embargo, los recientes resultados de estudios filogenéticos moleculares indican que <italic>Mimon</italic> es un género parafilético dentro de Phyllostomidae. En el presente estudio se realizó una revisión de caracteres morfológicos de todas las especies de <italic>Mimon</italic>, con énfasis en las poblaciones de <italic>M. crenulatum</italic>, construyendo una matriz a partir de 91 caracteres de la morfología externa, cráneo-dental y postcraneal. Las especies <italic>Lophostoma occidentalis, Trachops cirrhosus, Tonatia saurophila, Phyllostomus discolor, Phylloderma stenops</italic> y <italic>Micronycteris megalotis</italic> fueron elegidas como grupo externo, de las cuales <italic>M. megalotis</italic> fue usada para el enraizamiento. Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva para encontrar el mejor árbol a partir de 135 caracteres no ordenados, que incluyen los caracteres descritos en este estudio y los caracteres del aparato hioideo, lengua, tracto digestivo y reproductivo y cerebro, tomados de <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B44">Wetterer <italic>et al.</italic> (2000)</xref>. Se obtuvo un único árbol más parsimonioso bien soportado de 306 pasos. El soporte de las ramas fue pesado con Bremer y el remuestreo por Bootstrap y Jacknife con 10,000 réplicas. El árbol más parsimonioso confirma que <italic>Mimon</italic> es polifilético donde los subgéneros y el taxón anteriormente llamado <italic>"Anthorhina"</italic>están fuertemente respaldados en nodos no relacionados. Con la finalidad de resolver el surgente problema taxonómico, recomendamos elevar al taxón anteriormente llamado <italic>"Anthorhina"</italic>a género. Dado que <italic>"Anthorhina"</italic>es sinónimo de Tonatia, se propone un nuevo nombre. Finalmente, brindamos las diagnosis corregidas de <italic>Mimon</italic> s.s. y del nuevo género <italic>Gardnerycteris</italic>, basadas en los caracteres usados en el análisis filogenético.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p><italic>Mimon</italic> is currently considered a monophyletic genus that comprises two subgenera: <italic>Mimon</italic> (represented by <italic>M.bennettii</italic> and M. cozumelae), and the taxon formerly named <italic>"Anthorhina"</italic>(represented by M. crenulatum and M. koepckeae). However, recent molecular phylogenies show <italic>Mimon</italic> as a polyphyletic genus within Phyllostomidae.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>Herein, we present a phylogenetic approach based on morphology, which includes all species of the genus <italic>Mimon</italic>, with emphasis on geographical populations of <italic>M. crenulatum</italic>. Our data matrix was built with our own examination of <italic>M.bennettii</italic> (n = 5), <italic>M. cozumelae</italic> (n = 31), <italic>M. crenulatum</italic> (n = 181), and <italic>M. koepckeae</italic> (n = 3) for 91 morphological characters including external, skull-dental and postcraneal traits. The species <italic>Lophostoma occidentalis, Trachops cirrhosus, Tonatia saurophila, Phyllostomus discolor, Phylloderma stenops</italic>, and <italic>Micronycteris megalotis</italic> were selected as outgroups. The tree was rooted on <italic>M. megalotis</italic>. An exhaustive search with 135 unordered characters was performed to find the most parsimonious trees.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>A single well-supported tree of 306 steps was obtained. Bootstrap and Jacknife with 10,000 resampling were used as support estimators. The most parsimonious tree confirms <italic>Mimon</italic> is a polyphyletic genus, where the subgenus <italic>Mimon</italic> and the taxon formerly named <italic>"Anthorhina" "</italic>are strongly supported but unrelated monophyletic groups.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>In order to solve this taxonomic problem, we recommend the taxon formerly named <italic>"Anthorhina"</italic>be raised at genus level, but with a new name because <italic>"Anthorhina"</italic>is a synonym of <italic>Tonatia</italic>. Finally, we provide an emended diagnosis of <italic>Mimon</italic> s.s. and the description of a new genus, based on morphological characters used for the phylogeny.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Registro de presencia y actividades de algunos mamíferos en el Desierto Chihuahuense, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300793&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivos documentar a través de imágenes fotográficas las características morfológicas distintivas de las diferentes especies de mamíferos de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Mapimí (RBM) que permiten distinguirlas con claridad, especificar los lugares y el tipo de vegetación en los que se obtuvieron los registros y reportar algunas de sus actividades diarias. Se colocaron en total 32 cámaras trampa en áreas de matorral, pastizal y un cuerpo de agua en la ladera del Cerro San Ignacio entre los años 2009 a 2014 para un esfuerzo de muestreo total de 57,600 h, adicionalmente se obtuvieron imágenes de cámaras de uso manual. Se registraron cinco órdenes, 12 familias, 27 géneros y 31 especies que representan el 49 % del total conocido para la RBM. Se eleva a 64 las especies de mamíferos reportadas para la Reserva (antes de 63) por un nuevo registro del zorrillo <italic>Spilogale gracilis</italic>. Con las cámaras trampa se registraron 15 especies y con las personales 30 de éstas, 16 especies se registraron solo por este último medio; los pecaríes de collar fueron la única especie registrada exclusivamente con cámaras trampa. Algunos mamíferos fueron identificados solo a nivel de género <italic>Myotis</italic> sp., <italic>Chaetodipus</italic> sp., <italic>Peromyscus</italic> sp., <italic>Ictidomys</italic> o <italic>Xerospemorphilus</italic>. Aún persisten diversos aspectos desconocidos sobre los mamíferos de la RBM que es recomendable investigar para contribuir a la comprensión de la dinámica del Desierto Chihuahuense.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Photographic records are useful tools that had strengthen wildlife mammal studies as a noninvasive methodology providing a wide variety of information. The objective of this study is to document with images (automatic - trail cameras and manually - personal cameras) the species of mammals inhabiting the Mapimi Biospere Reserve (MBR), to highlight the morphologic characteristics that distinguish them, to record the area and vegetation type where each species was found and to determine some of their daily activities.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>Between 2009 and 2014, twelve field trips were made to Mapimi. In each trip we placed six trail cameras each at five locations (30 cameras total) for 24 h during six consecutive days, with 51,840 h photographic effort. Two sets of six cameras were placed in grassland habitat and three in shrubland habitat. Each camera was baited with 300 g of alfalfa mixed with sand in a tray placed 3 m from the camera. Between 2011 and 2014 two additional cameras were set to monitor a natural pond on the slope of a small mountain (San Ignacio) in the area with 5,760 h of photographic effort. In total we had 57,600 h of photographic effort. Images were also obtained from manual cameras of the authors while engaged in various research projects in the area with more than 2,000 photographs. These data for some species are directly from animals captured in the locality. Their main morphologic characteristics were highlighted, specific places, type of vegetation where each species was found and some of their daily activities.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>A total number of five orders, 12 families, 27 genera and 31 species were recorded, representing 49 % of mammals known in the Reserve. With trail cameras 1,714 photos were taken and 15 species were recorded (<xref ref-type="table" rid="t1">Table 1</xref>). The species with highest number of records were <italic>Dipodomys nelsoni</italic> (n = 610), <italic>D. merriami</italic> (n = 469) and <italic>Netoma leucodon</italic> (n = 335). The ones with the lowest number of photos were <italic>Ictidomys mexicanus</italic> (n = 48) and <italic>Sylvilagus audubonii</italic> (n = 46, <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f1">Figure 1</xref>). Trail cameras recorded five genera where the species level could not be determined: <italic>Myotis</italic> sp., <italic>Chaetodipus</italic> sp., <italic>Peromyscus</italic> sp., <italic>Ictidomys or Xerospemorphilus</italic>. With manual cameras more than 2,000 photos were taken and thirty species were photographed, only 16 were recorded with this method (<xref ref-type="table" rid="t1">Table 1</xref>). The collared peccary (<italic>Pecari tajacu</italic>) was the single species recorded only by trailed cameras.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>Results obtained demonstrated that with trail cameras, morphological characteristics that distinguish most mammalian species can be observed clearly for most small, medium and large species. For some small species (such as <italic>Heteromyidae and Muridae</italic>) their features cannot be easily noted so their proper identity is difficult to determine. It is also important to discuss that only half of the known mammal diversity in the locality was recorded with trail cameras. Some small (such as Heteromyidae and Muridae rodents and bats), medium (as skunks) or large size species (as pumas) were not recorded with them, even though these cameras are generally considered a very effective method for mammalian inventories. As our results do not support this idea, we strongly recommend to combine direct trapping methods with trail cameras to get more complete and more realistic mammalian inventories.</p><p>The highest numbers of records obtained with trail cameras were of <italic>Dipodomys nelsoni, D. merriami</italic> and <italic>Netoma leucodon</italic>, reflecting their numerical dominance in the ecosystem. Lower number of records of <italic>Sylvilagus audubonii</italic>, squirrels, deer, peccaries and other mammals are related with their low abundance and they occur only in very specific areas. The low numbers found of <italic>Lepus californicus</italic> were contradictory with previous studies, where they were much more frequently recorded. Skunks inhabit rocky and hills parts in the Reserve, and the presence of <italic>Spilogale gracilis</italic> was exceptional and as such represents a new record of this species for the Reserve. Documentation of mammalian species through photographic images contributes to different aspects of their biology that had not been addressed before in this location. Cameras allowed updating of information of some species and helped to identify knowledge gaps that can be addressed in the future to contribute to understand the dynamics of the mammal community in the Chihuahuan Desert.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Influencia de elementos traza en la epigenética de mamíferos]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300817&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Chronic exposure to toxic levels of elements such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and others trace elements might cause abnormalities in gene expression affecting metabolic pathways such as those related to trace elements detoxification and the reproductive ability of animals. Rodent species have been the subject of several studies examining the physiological consequences of exposure to toxic levels of arsenic, cadmium and nickel, and how those elements affect their epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. Results from those studies can be used as an approach of the effects that can potentially occur on small mammals found in sites altered by geochemical or anthropogenic activities (e. g. mining, industrial waste).</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>An exhaustive literature review was conducted aimed to gain a better understanding of epigenetics, identifying mechanisms involved in the toxicity of trace elements, elucidating the effect of those trace metals in the epigenetics of genes involved in detoxification mechanisms and, finally, determining whether damages caused by exposition to high levels of trace elements are equally evident on any tissue from the same organism.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:</title><p>Pollutants can influence methylation of DNA patterns, but not all of them follow the same pathway. This varies widely among groups of trace elements or organic compounds. In addition to concentration and time of exposure, a number of other factors affect the toxicity pathway, including age, sex, food sources and, especially, the physiology of the species. Even within the same organism, the methylation patterns associated to a given element vary between tissues. Therefore, selecting the most appropriate tissue for discerning the animal´s actual condition is key when assessing the actual health status of wildlife species. Further studies are needed to better characterize the interactions between DNA methylation and trace elements, and elucidate potential mechanisms or interventions that can help to reduce their effects on wildlife health.</p></sec><hr/><p>La exposición crónica a niveles tóxicos de elementos como arsénico, cadmio, plomo, mercurio, níquel y otros elementos traza, puede causar alteraciones en la expresión de diversos genes afectando procesos metabólicos como los relacionados con la detoxificación de elementos traza y la capacidad reproductiva de los animales. Las especies de roedores han sido objeto de varios estudios que examinan las consecuencias fisiológicas de la exposición a niveles tóxicos de arsénico, cadmio y níquel y cómo estos elementos afectan sus mecanismos epigenéticos, tales como la metilación del ADN. Los resultados de esos estudios pueden ser utilizados como una aproximación de los efectos que potencialmente pueden ocurrir en pequeños mamíferos que se encuentran en sitios alterados por actividades geoquímicas o antropogénicas (por ejemplo, minería, residuos industriales).</p><p>Se llevó a cabo una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura con objeto de lograr una mejor comprensión de la epigenética, identificar los elementos traza cuya toxicidad implica mecanismos epigenéticos, dilucidar el efecto de los metales traza en la epigenética de genes implicados en los mecanismos de desintoxicación y, finalmente, determinar si los daños causados por la exposición a niveles altos de elementos traza son igualmente evidentes en cualquier tejido del mismo organismo.</p><p>Los contaminantes pueden cambiar los patrones de metilación de ADN, pero no todos ellos siguen la misma ruta; ésta varía ampliamente entre grupos de metales traza o entre compuestos orgánicos. Además de la concentración y el tiempo de exposición, varios otros factores incluyendo la edad, el sexo, las fuentes de alimentos y, especialmente la fisiología de la especie, influyen en la ruta de acción de la toxicidad. Incluso dentro del mismo organismo, los patrones de metilación causados por un elemento dado varían entre los tejidos. Por lo tanto, la selección del tejido más apropiado para discernir la condición real del animal es clave para evaluar el estado real de salud de la vida silvestre. Los mecanismos epigenéticos son una herramienta importante para entender los mecanismos implicados en la toxicidad de los elementos traza, y cómo estos elementos pueden afectar los niveles de metilación del ADN. Se necesitan más estudios para caracterizar mejor las interacciones entre la metilación del ADN y los elementos traza y para dilucidar mecanismos o intervenciones potenciales que pueden ayudar a reducir sus efectos sobre la salud de la vida silvestre.</p> <![CDATA[Variación del nitrógeno fecal de <bold>Odocoileus virginianus</bold> a diferentes tiempos de exposición ambiental]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300831&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>El análisis de nitrógeno fecal (NF) es una técnica alternativa utilizada para la evaluación de la calidad de la dieta del venado cola blanca <italic>Odocoileus virginianus</italic>. Este artículo presenta los datos de un experimento que evalúa la pérdida NF de 18 grupos fecales bajo condiciones controladas. Los resultados indicaron que los valores de NF se mantuvieron constantes durante un máximo de 15 días y disminuyó de forma exponencial a partir de entonces. Por lo tanto, muestras con más tiempo no son adecuados para la estimación confiable del NF. Se discuten las implicaciones para el muestreo.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Successful wildlife management requires reliable indicators of the nutritional status of the animals in order to assess the relationship between them and their habitat. Fecal nitrogen (FN) has often been considered to be a good indicator of diet quality. FN analysis has been applied extensively in the temperate region of the range of the deer <italic>Odocoileus</italic>; however, little is known about the usefulness of this approach in the tropical habitats where the white-tailed deer <italic>O. virginianus</italic> is hunted. This study presents data on the variation in FN concentration with increased time of exposure. Specifically, we discuss the implications for field sampling in tropical habitats where environmental conditions can rapidly degrade deposited deer feces.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>Quantification of FN was performed with 18 freshly deposited pellet-groups collected at the end of the dry season of 2008 (April-May) in a protected natural area in Puebla state, Mexico. Samples were transported frozen to a Botanical Garden in Xalapa, Veracruz, where they were kept under controlled environmental conditions. Each pellet-group was sampled every 15 days, up to 60 days, by which time most of the droppings were covered with fungi due to the high humidity at the site. FN concentration was determined according to the micro-Kjeldahl method. An analysis of variance for repeated measures to detect differences in FN considering the deposition time and fecal groups as factors was applied using lm function in R.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>FN varied significantly depending on the exposure time of the feces. The initial concentration was 2.29 mg/ml and this value remained constant for 15 days, subsequently decreasing to a minimum of 0.019 mg/ml, which was reached 60 days after the start of the experiment.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>The use of fecal indexes may be a feasible non-invasive method by which to study diet quality, and an alternative to other techniques that imply disturbance, stress, or death of wild ungulates. In addition, fecal index is inexpensive and easy to apply on large sections of wild animal populations, throughout the year. Our results suggest that use of this method can give reliable results relating to white-tailed deer FN for up to two weeks post-defecation. In contrast, the results of another study suggest that feces collected for up to 24 days post-defecation, in September/October in temperate habitat in US, can be used to estimate FN as well as other nutritional characteristics. Seasonal variation in environment conditions and diet composition could explain these differences. We therefore recommend cleaning permanent sample plots and then returning to locate and collect fresh droppings within these plots.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Leucismo en el coatí de nariz blanca <bold>Nasua narica</bold> (Mammalia: Carnivora), en Quintana Roo, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300839&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>Las aberraciones cromáticas ocurren en mamíferos con poca frecuencia. El leucismo es la pérdida parcial o total de la pigmentación, dicha condición deriva de mutaciones genéticas. En este trabajo se presenta el primer registro de individuos leucísticos del coatí de nariz blanca <italic>Nasua narica</italic> en México.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Chromatic aberrations happen infrequently in mammals, usually as a result of the expression of a recessive gene. Leucism is the partial or total loss of pigmentation; this condition is the result of genetic mutations. This manuscript is the first report of leucistic individuals of White-nosed coati <italic>Nasua narica</italic> in Mexico.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>In September-October 2012, in the course of a faunal survey in the Yucatán Peninsula two atypical White-nosed coatis <italic>Nasua narica</italic> (Linnaeus 1766) was sighted and photographed in two different localities: "Crococun" regional zoological park, in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, México (20°52. 822' N y -86°53.222' W, 8 m), and "Condominio Club Real, Playacar Fase 1", in Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, México (20°36.775' N y -87°05.711' W, 10 m).</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>The animals, a juvenile and an adult, both females, showed a lack of pigmentation in the back, belly and members, coloration ranged from white to creamy-white; both cases had a slightly brown color in the neck and rings of the same color in the tail (<xref ref-type="fig" rid="f1">Figura 1</xref>). Such pigmentation pattern is similar to the reported for leucistic individuals (Buckley 1982).</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>Little is known about the cost to an individual under those conditions associated with this reduction in pigmentation; some authors consider leucism as a disadvantage, as it can be a determining factor for survival, because this condition increases visibility to potential predators and therefore suffer greater selection pressure (Chętnicki et al. 2007). The interpretation of the biological significance of atypical patterns of coloration still remains uncertain; however, it is known that the leucism can provide indirect evidence of the underlying genetic variability, genetic change to variation in fitness-related traits and/or population structure (Acevedo and Aguayo 2008). Therefore, it is necessary to perform detailed genetic studies to generate knowledge about the cause of the abnormalities in the color of the fur and to clarify whether further environmental or biological factors are involved.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Primer registro de <bold>Tlacuatzin canescens</bold>, (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia: Marmosidae) en Veracruz, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300845&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>El ratón tlacuache mexicano (<italic>Marmosa mexicana</italic>) y el ratón tlacuache grisáceo (<italic>Tlacuatzin canescens</italic>) son las dos únicas especies de la tribu Marmosini (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) en México. El género <italic>Tlacuatzin</italic> y la especie <italic>Tlacuatzin canescens</italic> son endémicos de México, su distribución abarca desde el sur del estado de Sonora hasta el estado de Chiapas, también se localiza en las Islas Marías, en la península de Yucatán y en el Estado de Puebla. Su presencia en el estado de Veracruz se confirma con los nueve registros aquí reportados, provenientes de localidades ubicadas en la porción central del estado. Los registros se obtuvieron mediante: a) revisión de ejemplares depositados en colección y b) captura y liberación. Las localidades presentan vegetación de selva baja caducifolia. Estos nuevos registros incrementan la distribución geográfica conocida de la especie en 139 km en línea recta desde la localidad más cercana en el Estado de Puebla. Es importante resaltar que estas localidades se encuentran a ambos lados de la Sierra Madre Oriental (altitud superior a 2,500 metros sobre el nivel del mar), que impide actualmente el intercambio entre las poblaciones de Puebla y Veracruz.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>The Mexican Mouse Opossum (<italic>Marmosa mexicana</italic>) and the grayish mouse opossum (<italic>Tlacuatzin canescens</italic>) were the only two known species of tribu Marmosini (Mammalia, Didelphimorphi, Didelphidae) in México. The genus <italic>Tlacuatzin</italic> and its species <italic>Tlacuatzin canescens</italic> are endemic. Its distribution extends from the south of the State of Sonora to the State of Chiapas. It is also found on the Islas Marias, in the state of Jalisco, in the Yucatán Peninsula, and in the State of Puebla. So far, <italic>T. canescens</italic> has not been previously sighted in the State of Veracruz or in the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the first official sighting of <italic>T. canescens</italic> from Veracruz, México.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p>The records were obtained: a) from voucher specimens deposited at the Colección Mastozoológica, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas, Universidad Veracruzana, and b) by accidentally trapping these mammals in botanical surveys conducted at the El Centro de Investigaciones Costeras La Mancha, Instituto de Ecología A.C. and its surroundings.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p>The presence of <italic>T. canescens</italic> in Veracruz State was documented by nine records collected at three different localities, from the central region of Veracruz, México. All the locations were found in deciduous forest areas.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p>These new records increase the species' known geographic distribution in 139 km, on a straight line from the nearest locality found in the state of Puebla. It is important to recall that these locations are all located on both sides of the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountain system (average altitude higher than 2000 meters above sea level, between localities), which serves as a barrier between the populations of Puebla and Veracruz.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Registro de la presencia de mamíferos medianos en dos zonas del municipio de Cuetzalán, en la Sierra Norte de Puebla]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300855&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>El norte de Puebla cuenta con una gran diversidad de mamíferos debido a la gran variedad de ecosistemas que presenta. Sin embargo, no se cuenta con información sobre su distribución ni sobre su respuesta a la fragmentación. Por lo anterior, se registró la presencia de mamíferos medianos en dos zonas con diferente grado de perturbación. Rancho el Paraíso de vocación ganadera y en Reserva Privada Tecomateno que está destinada a la conservación de hábitat en el municipio de Cuetzalán, Puebla.</p><p>De septiembre 2012 a febrero 2013 su utilizaron transectos para la búsqueda de huellas y excretas y cámaras trampa cebadas con una mezcla de sardina y manteca de cerdo. Adicionalmente, se elaboraron entrevistas semi-estructuradas a cazadores y ex-cazadores con ayuda de tarjetas con imágenes de las especies de distribución potencial.</p><p>Se realizaron en total 12 salidas por sitio, acumulando un total de 163 noches trampa y 27 km recorridos en el Rancho el Paraíso y 145 noches trampa y 22.5 km recorridos en la Reserva Tecomateno. Durante el trabajo de campo se detectaron seis especies para la Reserva Tecomateno y cuatro para el Rancho El Paraíso. Mediante las entrevistas, se documentó la presencia de 13 especies para la Reserva Tecomateno y de 11 en el Rancho El Paraíso.</p><p>Este estudio provee información sobre la mastofauna de Cuetzalán y su respuesta ante los distintos grados de perturbación. Se esperaba encontrar una diversidad mayor en el Rancho el Paraíso ya que se encuentra más alejado de los núcleos de población sin embargo; presenta una mayor intensidad de uso. Se considera que las encuestas son una buena herramienta para determinar la biodiversidad de un sitio a bajo costo y de manera rápida. Estos resultados nos permiten considerar que las reservas naturales privadas pueden ser una buena opción para el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad en zonas fragmentadas.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Northern Puebla has a high mammal diversity due the large variety of ecosystems present. However, there is no information about their distribution or their response to fragmentation. Thus, we registered medium sized mammals in two areas with different degree of disturbance. Rancho el Paraiso which focus on cattle ranching and the Tecomateno Private Reserve which conserves habitat in the municipality of Cuetzalan, Puebla.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p> From September 2012 to February 2013 we used transects to find tracks and scats and camera traps baited with a mix of sardine and lard. Additionally we undertook semi-structured interviews to hunters and ex-hunters with the aid of cards with images of the species potentially distributed in the area.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p> We carried out 12 field visits in each site, accumulating a total of 163 camera nights and walking 27 km in Rancho el Paraiso, while in the Tecomateno Reserve, we accumulated 145 camera nights and walked 22.5 km. Our field efforts resulted in the detection of six species for the Tecomateno Reserve and four for Rancho el Paraiso. Our semi-structured interviews documented the presence of 13 species for the Tecomateno Reserve and 11 for Rancho el Paraíso.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p> This study provides information on the mammals of Cuetzalan and their response to different levels of disturbance. It was expected to find a higher diversity in Rancho el Paraiso because it is located away from communities, however, it is used more intensively. We consider that interviews are a reliable cost effective tool to undertake rapid biodiversity assessments. These results also suggest that private nature reserves may be a good option to conserve biodiversity in fragmented areas.</p></sec> <![CDATA[La Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología, A. C. entrega el Premio al Mérito Académico Ticul Álvarez Solórzano 2014 a James L. Patton]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300870&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>El norte de Puebla cuenta con una gran diversidad de mamíferos debido a la gran variedad de ecosistemas que presenta. Sin embargo, no se cuenta con información sobre su distribución ni sobre su respuesta a la fragmentación. Por lo anterior, se registró la presencia de mamíferos medianos en dos zonas con diferente grado de perturbación. Rancho el Paraíso de vocación ganadera y en Reserva Privada Tecomateno que está destinada a la conservación de hábitat en el municipio de Cuetzalán, Puebla.</p><p>De septiembre 2012 a febrero 2013 su utilizaron transectos para la búsqueda de huellas y excretas y cámaras trampa cebadas con una mezcla de sardina y manteca de cerdo. Adicionalmente, se elaboraron entrevistas semi-estructuradas a cazadores y ex-cazadores con ayuda de tarjetas con imágenes de las especies de distribución potencial.</p><p>Se realizaron en total 12 salidas por sitio, acumulando un total de 163 noches trampa y 27 km recorridos en el Rancho el Paraíso y 145 noches trampa y 22.5 km recorridos en la Reserva Tecomateno. Durante el trabajo de campo se detectaron seis especies para la Reserva Tecomateno y cuatro para el Rancho El Paraíso. Mediante las entrevistas, se documentó la presencia de 13 especies para la Reserva Tecomateno y de 11 en el Rancho El Paraíso.</p><p>Este estudio provee información sobre la mastofauna de Cuetzalán y su respuesta ante los distintos grados de perturbación. Se esperaba encontrar una diversidad mayor en el Rancho el Paraíso ya que se encuentra más alejado de los núcleos de población sin embargo; presenta una mayor intensidad de uso. Se considera que las encuestas son una buena herramienta para determinar la biodiversidad de un sitio a bajo costo y de manera rápida. Estos resultados nos permiten considerar que las reservas naturales privadas pueden ser una buena opción para el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad en zonas fragmentadas.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Northern Puebla has a high mammal diversity due the large variety of ecosystems present. However, there is no information about their distribution or their response to fragmentation. Thus, we registered medium sized mammals in two areas with different degree of disturbance. Rancho el Paraiso which focus on cattle ranching and the Tecomateno Private Reserve which conserves habitat in the municipality of Cuetzalan, Puebla.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p> From September 2012 to February 2013 we used transects to find tracks and scats and camera traps baited with a mix of sardine and lard. Additionally we undertook semi-structured interviews to hunters and ex-hunters with the aid of cards with images of the species potentially distributed in the area.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p> We carried out 12 field visits in each site, accumulating a total of 163 camera nights and walking 27 km in Rancho el Paraiso, while in the Tecomateno Reserve, we accumulated 145 camera nights and walked 22.5 km. Our field efforts resulted in the detection of six species for the Tecomateno Reserve and four for Rancho el Paraiso. Our semi-structured interviews documented the presence of 13 species for the Tecomateno Reserve and 11 for Rancho el Paraíso.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p> This study provides information on the mammals of Cuetzalan and their response to different levels of disturbance. It was expected to find a higher diversity in Rancho el Paraiso because it is located away from communities, however, it is used more intensively. We consider that interviews are a reliable cost effective tool to undertake rapid biodiversity assessments. These results also suggest that private nature reserves may be a good option to conserve biodiversity in fragmented areas.</p></sec> <![CDATA[Corrigendum]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-33642014000300881&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <p>El norte de Puebla cuenta con una gran diversidad de mamíferos debido a la gran variedad de ecosistemas que presenta. Sin embargo, no se cuenta con información sobre su distribución ni sobre su respuesta a la fragmentación. Por lo anterior, se registró la presencia de mamíferos medianos en dos zonas con diferente grado de perturbación. Rancho el Paraíso de vocación ganadera y en Reserva Privada Tecomateno que está destinada a la conservación de hábitat en el municipio de Cuetzalán, Puebla.</p><p>De septiembre 2012 a febrero 2013 su utilizaron transectos para la búsqueda de huellas y excretas y cámaras trampa cebadas con una mezcla de sardina y manteca de cerdo. Adicionalmente, se elaboraron entrevistas semi-estructuradas a cazadores y ex-cazadores con ayuda de tarjetas con imágenes de las especies de distribución potencial.</p><p>Se realizaron en total 12 salidas por sitio, acumulando un total de 163 noches trampa y 27 km recorridos en el Rancho el Paraíso y 145 noches trampa y 22.5 km recorridos en la Reserva Tecomateno. Durante el trabajo de campo se detectaron seis especies para la Reserva Tecomateno y cuatro para el Rancho El Paraíso. Mediante las entrevistas, se documentó la presencia de 13 especies para la Reserva Tecomateno y de 11 en el Rancho El Paraíso.</p><p>Este estudio provee información sobre la mastofauna de Cuetzalán y su respuesta ante los distintos grados de perturbación. Se esperaba encontrar una diversidad mayor en el Rancho el Paraíso ya que se encuentra más alejado de los núcleos de población sin embargo; presenta una mayor intensidad de uso. Se considera que las encuestas son una buena herramienta para determinar la biodiversidad de un sitio a bajo costo y de manera rápida. Estos resultados nos permiten considerar que las reservas naturales privadas pueden ser una buena opción para el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad en zonas fragmentadas.</p><hr/><sec sec-type="intro"><title>INTRODUCTION:</title><p>Northern Puebla has a high mammal diversity due the large variety of ecosystems present. However, there is no information about their distribution or their response to fragmentation. Thus, we registered medium sized mammals in two areas with different degree of disturbance. Rancho el Paraiso which focus on cattle ranching and the Tecomateno Private Reserve which conserves habitat in the municipality of Cuetzalan, Puebla.</p></sec><sec sec-type="methods"><title>METHODS:</title><p> From September 2012 to February 2013 we used transects to find tracks and scats and camera traps baited with a mix of sardine and lard. Additionally we undertook semi-structured interviews to hunters and ex-hunters with the aid of cards with images of the species potentially distributed in the area.</p></sec><sec sec-type="results"><title>RESULTS:</title><p> We carried out 12 field visits in each site, accumulating a total of 163 camera nights and walking 27 km in Rancho el Paraiso, while in the Tecomateno Reserve, we accumulated 145 camera nights and walked 22.5 km. Our field efforts resulted in the detection of six species for the Tecomateno Reserve and four for Rancho el Paraiso. Our semi-structured interviews documented the presence of 13 species for the Tecomateno Reserve and 11 for Rancho el Paraíso.</p></sec><sec sec-type="conclusions"><title>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:</title><p> This study provides information on the mammals of Cuetzalan and their response to different levels of disturbance. It was expected to find a higher diversity in Rancho el Paraiso because it is located away from communities, however, it is used more intensively. We consider that interviews are a reliable cost effective tool to undertake rapid biodiversity assessments. These results also suggest that private nature reserves may be a good option to conserve biodiversity in fragmented areas.</p></sec>