Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=1665-114620110002&lang=es vol. 68 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[<b>Enfermedades tropicales del rezago: a 72 años del establecimiento del Instituto de Salubridad y Enfermedades Tropicales en México</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>The global burden of neglected tropical diseases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) consist of a group of chronic, debilitating, and poverty-promoting parasitic, bacterial, and viral and fungal infections that are widespread among people in poor rural or peri-urban communities living in tropical or subtropical areas. However, due to population mobility, diseases such as Chagas disease can be diagnosed anywhere on the globe. The NTDs are disabling, disfiguring and deadly diseases impacting more than one billion people worldwide. They also impair physical and cognitive development, cause adverse pregnancy outcomes, and limit adult productivity in the workforce. The global burden of disease associated with the NTDs is comparable to other infectious diseases such as that of malaria or tuberculosis. Controlling or eliminating NTDs represents an affordable opportunity to improve the health of poor communities, which may ultimately promote social development. <![CDATA[<b>Leishmaniasis visceral: veinte años de experiencia clínica en población pediátrica en un hospital de referencia en Chiapas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introducción. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la experiencia clínica en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis visceral en pacientes menores de 15 años atendidos, durante el periodo 1990-2010, en el Hospital General Dr. Rafael Pascasio Gamboa de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. Métodos. Este fue un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo que se llevó a cabo a través de la revisión de los expedientes clínicos existentes, los reportes epidemiológicos del archivo del servicio de epidemiología y los resúmenes clínicos archivados en el servicio de Pediatría del Hospital General Dr. Rafael Pascasio Gamboa de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de leishmaniasis visceral confirmado por serología, por inmunofluorescencia indirecta y por la presencia de amastigotos en el aspirado de medula ósea. Se recolectaron los datos clínicos y los epidemiológicos. Resultados. Durante el periodo 1990-2010 se registraron 72 niños con el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis visceral. Se descartaron 9 casos por no reunir los datos indispensables para el análisis. Los 63 casos que se analizaron presentaron una edad comprendida entre 2 meses y 13 años; 56 (88%) fueron menores de 5 años. La relación con respecto al género (femenino-masculino) fue de 1:1.2. Se presentó fiebre en el 100% de los casos; esplenomegalia en 97%, hepatomegalia en 87% y pancitopenia en 95%. La serología para leishmania por inmunofluorescencia indirecta fue > 1:32, positiva en 98% de los casos y la presencia de amastigotos en 79% de los aspirados de médula ósea. En cinco niños se identificó Leishmania chagasi en medio de cultivo 3N (Nicolle-Novy-McNeal). Se presentó desnutrición en 75% de los niños. Conclusiones. En el estado de Chiapas, se debe considerar el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis visceral en pacientes con fiebre, hepatoesplenomegalia y pancitopenia y se debe iniciar precozmente la búsqueda del parásito para evitar el desgaste que sufren los niños, lo que los conduce a la desnutrición y los pone en riesgo de muerte.<hr/>Background. We undertook this study to describe the clinical experience in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in patients <15 years of age who were treated from 1990-2010 in the Hospital General Dr. Rafael Pascacio Gamboa of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. Methods. This was a retrospective descriptive study. We reviewed the clinical files and epidemiological reports from the Department of Pediatrics of the Hospital General Dr. Rafael Pascacio Gamboa of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. All patients with a diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis confirmed by serology, indirect immunofluorescence and the presence of amastigotes in the bone marrow aspirate were included. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected. Results. From 1990-2010, 72 children with the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis were reported. Nine cases were discarded because necessary data for the analysis were not collected. Sixty three subjects who were analyzed were between 2 months and 13 years of age; 56 (88%) were <5 years of age. Female:male ratio was 1:1.2. Fever was present in 100% of the cases, splenomegaly in 97%, hepatomegaly in 87% and pancytopenia in 95%. Serology for leishmania by indirect immunofluorescence was &gt;1:32, positive in 98% of cases. The presence of amastigotes was found in 79% of the bone marrow aspirates. Leishmania chagasi was identified in culture medium 3N (Nicolle-Novy-McNeal) in five children; 75% of the children presented malnutrition. Conclusions. In the state of Chiapas, diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis should be considered in patients with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. The search for the parasite should be begun early to avoid clinical deterioration and pain, which leads to malnutrition and puts patients at risk of dying. <![CDATA[<b>Canine leishmaniasis in México: the detection of a new focus of canine leishmaniasis in the state of Guerrero correlates with an increase of human cases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background. In Mexico, a steady increase of patients with visceral leishmaniasis has been reported, especially in the states of Chiapas and Guerrero, yet only limited information exists on canine leishmaniasis in areas of visceral leishmaniasis in Mexico. A veterinary report of dogs with nonhealing cutaneous lesions in Pungarabato, Guerrero led us to investigate the possible presence of Leishmania infection in an area where Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi, both vectors of Leishmania infantum, have been described. Methods. We analyzed skin lesions of 25 dogs by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Results. We found a 60% prevalence of Leishmania-infected dogs, the infection rate being higher in males than females. Thus, we established a new focus of canine leishmaniasis, and although to date no patients have been reported in this municipality, it is close to and shares the same ecological characteristics of dry tropical forests as regions where visceral leishmaniasis has been reported in Mexico. We also include updated information of localities of visceral leishmaniasis in Mexico as well as the distribution of possible sand fly vectors. Conclusions. Our data show the need to ascertain the magnitude of this new focus in view of the current data on human visceral leishmaniasis, a disease that is surging in Mexico. <![CDATA[<b>Serotipos de dengue en México durante 2009 y 2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introducción. El dengue en México es un problema prioritario de salud pública. Desde el 2008 el Departamento para la Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Virológica del InDRE implementó un nuevo algoritmo de diagnóstico del dengue, que utiliza la Red de Laboratorios Estatales de Salud Pública, para favorecer la representatividad geográfica, la oportunidad, la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la información que se obtiene. Métodos. La identificación de serotipos se realizó a partir de muestras positivas a la proteína NS1 por ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA). Las técnicas que se utilizaron fueron: aislamiento viral, PCR punto final y, desde 2009, RT-PCR en tiempo real (qRT-PCR). Resultados. En 2009 se analizaron 6,336 muestras; en 2,944 de éstas (46.6%) se identificó el serotipo DENV-1 que predominó sobre el serotipo DENV-2; el serotipo DENV-3 sólo se identificó en dos casos en Guerrero y el serotipo DENV-4 en un caso en Chiapas. En 2010 se analizaron 2,013 muestras. Se identificó algún serotipo en 1,607 muestras (79.88%) y, nuevamente, el serotipo DENV-1 predominó en todo el país. En Chiapas se identificaron los serotipos DENV-1, 2 y 4 y en Jalisco los serotipos DENV-1 y 3. Además, se identificó la circulación del serotipo DENV-3 en Guerrero y apareció el serotipo DENV-4 en San Luis Potosí. Conclusiones. Por la selección de muestras para vigilancia virológica de dengue mediante la positividad a la proteína NS1 y por la introducción de la técnica de qRT-PCR se optimizó la identificación de serotipos circulantes. La alta endemia, los brotes en nuevas regiones, el predominio del serotipo DENV-1 por varios años y la introducción lenta de otros serotipos, principalmente DENV-3, pueden favorecer la aparición de formas clínicas graves de dengue. La vigilancia epidemiológica inteligente del dengue brindará información para un mejor entendimiento de la enfermedad y promoverá acciones para su control y prevención.<hr/>Background. Dengue is a public health priority in Mexico. Since 2008, the dengue diagnostic algorithm for epidemiological and virological surveillance has been improved at InDRE and the public health laboratory network (RLESP) to optimize geographic representation, opportunity, sensitivity and specificity of the produced information. Methods. Dengue serotype identification is based on ELISA NS1 positive samples. Methods used are viral isolation, endpoint PCR and, since August 2009, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results. In 2009, 6,336 serum samples were analyzed and 2,944 (46.6%) were positive for serotype identification. DENV-1 was detected in greater proportion followed by DENV-2, and DENV-3 4 was only identified in two cases in Guerrero and DENV-4 in one case in Chiapas. In 2010, 2,013 serum samples were analyzed and 1,607 (78.8%) were positive for serotype identification. DENV-1 was predominant throughout the country. In Chiapas, DENV-1, 2 and 4 were identified and in Jalisco DENV-1 and 3. DENV-3 was identified in Guerrero again and DENV-4 was detected in San Luis Potosí. Conclusions. The selection samples through NS1 positive samples and the introduction of qRT-PCR optimized serotype identification. Hyperendemicity, outbreaks in new geographic areas, the predominant circulation of DENV-1 for several years and the slow reintroduction of the other serotypes, mainly DENV-3, could increase clinical cases of severe dengue. An ¡intelligentí epidemiological surveillance program would offer information for a better understanding of the disease and promote action for its control and prevention. <![CDATA[<b>Achievements and challenges in controlling Chagas disease</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease continues to endanger the lives of many million people in Latin America, and through travel and population migration there is a risk of congenital cases in nonendemic settings. Substantial improvements in the transmission of the disease have been achieved through vector control and blood-bank screening. However, vector-borne transmission remains the main mode of acquisition of infection in many settings coupled with congenital transmission and food-borne and accidental exposure through transplantation or laboratory exposure. The main sites of affection include the heart and gastrointestinal tract. Antiparasitic treatment of indeterminate forms is successful in many cases by delaying the risk of progression of cardiomyopathy, but treatment of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy remains mainly supportive. The BENEFIT trial that will be completed by late 2011 or early 2012 will provide evidence for or against treating chronic symptomatic forms. Control or eliminating Chagas disease transmission coupled with decreasing the associated burden of disease in Latin America will promote better health and social and economic development among the most impoverished populations in the region. <![CDATA[<b>Leprosy: a modern assessment of an ancient neglected disease</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic mycobacterial infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and affects mainly peripheral nerves and skin as well as upper respiratory mucosae. This infection is a conjoined bacteriological and immunological disease. Target cells of infection are macrophages, histiocytes in the skin, and the nonmyelinating and myelinating Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves leading to axonal dysfunction and demyelination leading to functional impairment and deformity. Leprosy reactions represent the most important determinant of nerve impairment if untreated and unrecognized. Control of leprosy transmission remains a challenge despite substantial improvements through the use of multidrug therapy in many settings. Most importantly, although many patients have been microbiologically cured through the efforts of the World Health Organization, many are left with significant disability that has recently been estimated to be ~20% of those treated (~15 million individuals) in the last decades. Further efforts are needed to elucidate the epidemiology and risk factors for disability among those with multibacillary forms. <![CDATA[<b>Are leprosy reactions autoinflammatory diseases?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es There are two types of leprosy reactions: reversal reactions or type 1 and erythema nodosum leprosum or type 2. Deformity and disability associated with leprosy are frequently the result of uncontrolled or untreated reactions. Although there is current availability of glucocorticoids as the mainstay of therapy, much needs to be learned about the etiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis of leprosy reactions. There is some evidence that leprosy reactions may represent, particularly, erythema nodosum leprosum autoinflammatory disease due to the aberrant activation of the innate immune system. The role for herpesviruses influencing autophagy in macrophages needs to be evaluated in the pathogenesis of leprosy reactions. <![CDATA[<b>Oncocercosis: ¿la próxima enfermedad eliminable en México?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La oncocercosis es la segunda causa de ceguera a escala mundial, después del tracoma, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Fue descubierta en América por Rodolfo Robles en Guatemala, en 1915 (enfermedad de Robles); en 1923 en Chiapas y en 1926 en Oaxaca, México. En 1930 se estableció el programa para su control; es el más antiguo del país y ha realizado trabajos ininterrumpidamente hasta la fecha. Se pueden describir tres grandes etapas del programa para el control de la oncocercosis: a) de 1930-1946 se llevó a cabo la lucha antilarvaria con creolina, la eliminación de larvas de las corrientes de agua y la extirpación de nódulos; b) la administración de la dietilcarbamazina en 1947, la extirpación de nódulos y la aplicación de DDT en 1952; y c) en 1993 la eliminación de la enfermedad con el tratamiento con ivermectina y la extirpación de nódulos. Hasta 1980 se observaba una notificación promedio de 20 mil casos anuales pero, a partir de 1993, al iniciar la administración de ivermectina en dos rondas anuales, se redujo a menos de 100 casos nuevos por año para finales del año 2000 y se eliminó la transmisión en dos focos (en el norte de Oaxaca y en Chamula, en Chiapas), aunque todavía permanece en uno (en Soconusco, Chiapas). En el presente artículo nos referimos a la lucha, durante los últimos 17 años, en contra de la oncocercosis y qué nos permite suponer que, en breve, podrá ser erradicada del país.<hr/>According to the World Health Organization, onchocerciasis is the second cause of global blindness after trachoma. It was first discovered in America by Rodolfo Robles in Guatemala in 1915 (Robles's disease); in Chiapas, Mexico in 1923; and in Oaxaca in 1926. In 1930, the first control program was established in Mexico that, to date, has worked uninterruptedly. Three stages of the program can be described: a) from 1930-1946 the antilarvae campaign with creolin was carried out along with the elimination of larvae from water and the removal of nodules; (b) administration of diethylcarbamazine in 1947, removal of nodules and application of DDT in 1952; and c) in 1993 the elimination of the disease with ivermectin treatment and the removal of nodules. Until 1980, an average of 20,000 cases have been reported each year. Since 1993, with the initiation of the administration of ivermectin in two annual doses, the incidence was reduced to <100 new cases per year by the end of 2000 and the transmission in two foci (northern Oaxaca and in Chamula in Chiapas) has been deleted, with one remaining in Soconusco, Chiapas. In this article, we report on the campaign against river blindness during the past 17 years and why we assume that, in brief, this disease can be eliminated in Mexico. <![CDATA[<b>Cisticercosis: enfermedad desatendida</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La neurocisticercosis humana es una enfermedad que se relaciona con el subdesarrollo, se presenta en países que no tienen buena infraestructura sanitaria ni educación para la salud. A pesar de que la cisticercosis humana se considera como una enfermedad desatendida, en este trabajo se describen los sucesos que han facilitado su control en México, por lo que se puede afirmar que la neurocisticercosis ya no es una enfermedad de importancia en salud pública en nuestro país.<hr/>Human neurocysticercosis is a disease associated with underdevelopment and occurs in countries with poor health infrastructure and poor health education. Despite the fact that human cysticercosis is considered a neglected disease, in this paper the events that have facilitated its control in Mexico are described. Therefore, it can be considered that neurocysticercosis may no longer be a public health problem in our country. <![CDATA[<b>Eliminating lymphatic filariasis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es One of the oldest of the neglected tropical diseases, lymphatic filariasis, is caused by filarial worms transmitted by insect vectors that live in the lymphatic system and most commonly cause lymphedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele, which may lead to severe deformity, stigma and disability. Similar to other neglected tropical diseases, lymphatic filariasis occurs mostly among the poor disenfranchised populations living in highly endemic settings perpetuating a cycle that traps people into further poverty and destitution. Through the leadership of the World Health Organization, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has reached substantial achievements in decreasing the transmission of lympahtic filariasis in multiple settings. The strategic plan for the next 10 years of the Global Programme, in addition to working within the new 'neglected tropical diseases environment,' lays out necessary mass drug administration implementation goals for the filariasis-endemic countries that have not yet started their elimination programs (principally in Africa). The neglected tropical diseases programs-and the lymphatic filariasis program in particular-are among the very least expensive, most cost-effective tools to benefit needy populations of the developing world. <![CDATA[<b>Bridging the innovation gap for neglected tropical diseases in México: capacity building for the development of a new generation of antipoverty vaccines</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of chronic parasitic and related infections that promote poverty because of their impact on child development, pregnancy, and worker productivity. The estimated 20 million Mexicans who live below the poverty line suffer disproportionately from a high prevalence of neglected tropical diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, dengue, leishmaniasis, soil-transmitted helminth infections, trachoma, and vivax malaria. However, because the NTDs occur predominantly among the poor, new industrial and financial models are required to establish innovative technologies to address these conditions in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America. In response, the Slim Initiative for Antipoverty Vaccine Development was established to foster a public/private partnership between key academic, government, and industrial institutions in the U.S. and Mexico. Initial emphasis will be placed on developing new vaccines for Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, two of the highest burden NTDs in Mexico and Mesoamerica. <![CDATA[<b>La malaria en México. Progresos y desafíos hacia su eliminación</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-11462011000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La malaria es una de las principales enfermedades parasitarias que afecta a ciertas poblaciones a escala mundial incluyendo América Latina. La mayoría de los casos son ocasionados por Plasmodium vivax; sin embargo, en algunos países Sudamericanos algunos casos de malaria severa causados por Plasmodium falciparum continúan siendo importantes causas de morbilidad y mortalidad. El control de la malaria en América Latina se ha enfocado a reducir las oportunidades para los diversos componentes participantes en la transmisión: los vectores, los parásitos y los reservorios de la infección en humanos. México ha liderado los esfuerzos con varios países centroamericanos para lograr la eliminación de esta enfermedad parasitaria. En esta revisión se presentan los avances logrados hasta el momento y los futuros retos para lograr la eliminación de esta enfermedad infecciosa.<hr/>Malaria continues to be a leading parasite disease in the tropics and subtropics including Latin America. In this region, most cases of malaria are due to Plasmodium vivax, however, cases of Plasmodium falciparum continue to lead to cases of severe malaria in many countries in South America. Control and elimination of malaria in Latin America has been focused on the key steps of the parasite life cycle and transmission mechanism including vector control, decreasing the number of parasites during treatment and human reservoirs with intermittent preventive therapy with antimalarial drugs. In this effort, Mexico has collaborated with many countries in Central America towards the potential elimination of this parasitic infection. In this review, we discuss the achievements and remaining challenges in controlling and potentially eliminating malaria in Mexico.