Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Economía, sociedad y territorio]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=1405-842120180002&lang=es vol. 18 num. 57 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Presentación]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Capacidades institucionales del gobierno municipal en el diseño y gestión de políticas habitacionales]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200319&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: La participación del municipio en la implementación de las distintas decisiones urbano-habitacionales resulta estratégica en el diseño y gestión de políticas más pertinentes. Este involucramiento se encuentra restringido no sólo por las condiciones de diseño de la política, sino también por las capacidades municipales disponibles. Este trabajo analiza el involucramiento de los municipios en la definición, diseño e implementación de las políticas habitacionales, tomando como recurso-ejemplo el estudio de dos casos (uno mexicano y otro argentino) con características diferenciadas. El interés radica en identificar las capacidades institucionales existentes y necesarias de desarrollar como estrategia privilegiada para el mejoramiento de las políticas habitacionales vigentes.<hr/>Abstract: The participation of the municipality in the implementation of different urban-housing decisions is strategic in the design and management of more relevant policies. This involvement is restricted not only by the policy design conditions, but also by the available municipal capacities. This paper analyzes the involvement of municipalities in the definition, design, and implementation of housing policies, taking as an example two case studies (one Mexican and one Argentinian) with distinct characteristics. The interest lies in identifying the existing and necessary to develop institutional capacities, as a privileged strategy for the improvement of existing housing policies. <![CDATA[Desempeño fiscal municipal del estado de Sinaloa: Propuesta de índice sintético para evaluaciones fiscales]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200359&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Las evaluaciones al desempeño fiscal de los municipios son importantes para mejorar las políticas en materia de ingresos y gastos, así como para fortalecer las finanzas municipales. Este estudio presenta la evaluación de los municipios de Sinaloa, mediante la construcción de un índice sintético determinado por una serie de indicadores simples que evalúa cuantitativamente el desempeño en materia fiscal de los gobiernos locales. Los resultados muestran un índice de desempeño mejor en la zona centro, centro-norte y parte del norte del estado de Sinaloa, mientras la sur (excepto Mazatlán), centro-sur, noroeste y parte del norte tienen un índice sintético más bajo.<hr/>Abstract: Evaluations of fiscal performance of the municipalities are important to improve policies regarding income and expenses, as well as to strengthen municipal finances. This study presents the evaluation of the municipalities of Sinaloa, through the construction of a synthetic index determined by a series of simple indicators that quantitatively evaluates the fiscal performance of local governments. The results show a better performance index in the central zone, center-north, and part of the north of the state of Sinaloa; while the south (except from Mazatlan), center-south, northwest, and part of the north have a lower synthetic index. <![CDATA[Captura de plusvalías, regularización de edificios y aglomeraciones turísticas en Guadalajara]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200397&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Este artículo evalúa un programa de cuotas de impactos del municipio de Guadalajara, Jalisco, con el que se regularizan acciones urbanísticas construidas violando la zonificación vigente. Para identificar las aportaciones del programa a la formación de distritos de negocios y turismo y su eficiencia como instrumento de captura de plusvalía, se evalúan el diseño del programa y sus avances entre marzo de 2016 y septiembre de 2017. Se concluye que el programa contribuye pobremente a formar aglomeraciones turísticas y distritos de negocios, debido a que contiene sesgos e ineficiencias como instrumento de captura de plusvalía que ayude a reducir la desigualdad social urbana.<hr/>Abstract: This article analyzes an impact fee program implemented in Guadalajara, Jalisco, to regularize urban projects built violating the existing zoning code. To identify the program contributions to the formation of business and tourist districts and its efficiency as an instrument for value capture, the program design and the progress achieved in its implementation between March 2016 and September 2017 are evaluated. It is concluded that the program makes poor contributions to the formation of tourist agglomerations and business districts because it presents failures that undermine its efficiency as an instrument of value capture that helps to reduce social inequality in the city. <![CDATA[Contingent valuation of Tia Nair Park (Brazil): Comparison of open-ended and bidding-game techniques]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200429&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumo: A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estimar e comparar o valor econômico do parque Tia Nair (Cuiabá-Brasil). Para tal, aplicou-se o Método de Valoração Contingente através de duas Técnicas: Open-Ended e Referendum com Bidding Games. O valor médio obtido foi de R$ 2,900,000 diante de uma disposição a pagar de R$ 8.30 e uma população de 30,000 visitantes. Observou-se resultados diferentes para as duas técnicas sendo que a Open-Ended apresentou mais desafios para aplicação, assim como superestimou o valor encontrado.<hr/>Abstract: The present study aims to estimate and compare the economic value of Tia Nair Park (Cuiabá-Brazil). To do this, the contingent valuation method was applied through two techniques: open-ended and referendum with bidding games. The average value obtained was R$ 2,900,000 against a willingness to pay of R$ 8.30 and a population of 30,000 visitors. Different results were observed for the two techniques, with open-ended presenting more challenges for application, as well as overestimating the value found. <![CDATA[El arduo proceso de reinserción laboral de los retornados en la periferia globalizada]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200455&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Este trabajo muestra las condiciones de reinserción laboral de migrantes de retorno en el “próspero” municipio de Cuautlancingo, Puebla, lugar de enclaves trasnacionales automotrices conectados con la globalización. La estrategia metodológica comprendió una encuesta, una tipología, un concepto integrador de reinserción laboral y el análisis del uso de las remesas y de los ahorros de los retornados. Los resultados refieren que dicho proceso ha sido difícil, no igual para mujeres y hombres, y un tanto diferente para quienes regresaron de manera definitiva voluntaria, que para los que regresaron bajo condiciones forzadas o voluntariamente pero sin metas cumplidas, en un contexto de periferia globalizada.<hr/>Abstract: This paper presents reinsertion labor conditions of returning migrants in the “prosper” municipality of Cuautlancingo, Puebla, where the multinational automobile industry is located and connected with the global economy. The methodological approach is based on a survey, a typology, an integral concept of labor reinsertion, and the analysis of the use of remittances and savings of the returning migrants. The results confirm that the labor reinsertion process has been difficult and different to men and women. Moreover, this process has not been the same if the migrants returned willingly or unwillingly, or without achieving their goals, particularly in the context of a globalized periphery. <![CDATA[Análisis del hambre en el estado de Zacatecas bajo el modelo de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200487&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: El objetivo del presente artículo es hacer un análisis cuantitativo de la problemática del hambre en el estado de Zacatecas en México. Las variables tomadas en cuenta para la realización del modelo son años de escolaridad, habitantes por vivienda, Valor Agregado Bruto, Población Económica Activa, Producto Interno Bruto y número de hectáreas cosechadas, en cada uno de los 58 municipios de Zacatecas. A través de una recategorización del Método de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MCO) se llega a la conclusión de que el número de habitantes por vivienda es el factor más importante al momento de determinar la probabilidad de padecer hambre en dicho estado.<hr/>Abstract: The purpose of this article is to make a quantitative analysis of the problem of hunger in the state of Zacatecas in Mexico. The variables considered for the realization of the model are: years of schooling, inhabitants per dwelling, gross aggregate value, economically active population, gross domestic product, and number of hectares harvested, in each of the 58 municipalities of Zacatecas. Through a re-categorization of the ordinary least squares (OLS) method, we conclude that the number of inhabitants per household is the most important factor when determining the probability of suffering from hunger in that state. <![CDATA[Determinants of criminality in the southeastern region of Brazil: A space panel application]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200525&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumo: O objetivo desse estudo é identificar os principais fatores responsáveis pela criminalidade na região Sudeste do Brasil. Para este fim, construiu-se um painel acompanhando a evolução da criminalidade nas microrregiões sudestinas. Realizou-se testes de autocorrelação espacial global e local, juntamente com a estimação de modelos econométricos de painel espacial. Os resultados apontaram para a existência de dependência espacial das taxas de crime em todos os anos analisados. Identificou-se que a densidade populacional, o PIB per capita, a taxa de desemprego e a proporção de jovens impactam positivamente nas taxas de homicídios, sendo relevantes para a compreensão do fenômeno da criminalidade.<hr/>Abstract: The goal of this study is to identify the main factors responsible for criminality in the southeast region of Brazil. To this end, a panel data structure was set up to monitor the evolution of crime in the southeast microregions. Global and local spatial auto-correlation tests were carried out together with the estimation of econometric spatial panel models. The results pointed to the existence of spatial dependence on crime rates in all the analyzed years. It was found that population density, GDP per capita, unemployment rate, and proportion of young people have a positive impact on homicide rates, which is relevant to understanding the phenomenon of crime. <![CDATA[Medición de la eficiencia de la Innovación 2013-2016 mediante el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (AED) en red dinámica]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200557&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar la eficiencia respecto a la evaluación de la generación, difusión e impacto del conocimiento e innovación en un grupo de 33 países; utilizando el Análisis Envolvente de Datos en red dinámica (AED). La hipótesis planteada señala que las instituciones, el capital humano y la infraestructura generan la sofisticación del mercado y empresarial, la cual genera a su vez productos del conocimiento y la tecnología, creación, impacto y difusión del conocimiento. Los resultados sugieren que el país más eficiente es Irlanda. Para el caso mexicano es posible detectar una brecha de eficiencia al obtener valores cercanos a 0.64.<hr/>Abstract: This research aims to identify the efficiency with respect to the evaluation of the generation, diffusion and impact of knowledge, and innovation in a group of 33 countries using the Dynamic Network DEA. The proposed hypothesis states that institutions, human capital, and infrastructure generate the sophistication of the market and business, which in turn generate: products of knowledge and technology, creation, impact, and diffusion of knowledge. The results suggest that the most efficient country is Ireland. For the Mexican case it is possible to detect an efficiency gap when obtaining values close to 0.64 <![CDATA[Analysis and evaluation of clusters in Portugal recognized by NSRF]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200585&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os clusters de Portugal reconhecidos pelo Programa Operacional Fatores de Competitividade, no âmbito do Quadro de Referência Estratégica Nacional, entre 2007-13. Pretende-se através do estudo de indicadores que constituem medidas de concentração geográfica, bem como, da aplicação de um Questionário, analisar se os oito clusters reconhecidos, prefiguram, funcionam com as características necessárias para a classificação de cluster. Conclui-se que dois clusters funcionam com características de cluster e dois clusters apresentam ligações de interação/cooperação significativas. Conclui-se, ainda, que apenas um cluster está a funcionar na sua plenitude enquanto cluster.<hr/>Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze Portugal clusters recognized by the Operational Programme Competitiveness Factors within the scope of the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013. It is intended through the study of indicators of geographical concentration measures, as well as the application of a questionnaire to examine whether the eight recognized clusters foreshadow and work with the necessary characteristics for the cluster classification. It is concluded that two clusters are assumed as cluster and two clusters have interaction links/more meaningful cooperation. Moreover, results show that only one cluster is functioning at its fullest while cluster. <![CDATA[Financiarización global de la vivienda: lucro y desplazamientos sociales]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200621&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os clusters de Portugal reconhecidos pelo Programa Operacional Fatores de Competitividade, no âmbito do Quadro de Referência Estratégica Nacional, entre 2007-13. Pretende-se através do estudo de indicadores que constituem medidas de concentração geográfica, bem como, da aplicação de um Questionário, analisar se os oito clusters reconhecidos, prefiguram, funcionam com as características necessárias para a classificação de cluster. Conclui-se que dois clusters funcionam com características de cluster e dois clusters apresentam ligações de interação/cooperação significativas. Conclui-se, ainda, que apenas um cluster está a funcionar na sua plenitude enquanto cluster.<hr/>Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze Portugal clusters recognized by the Operational Programme Competitiveness Factors within the scope of the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013. It is intended through the study of indicators of geographical concentration measures, as well as the application of a questionnaire to examine whether the eight recognized clusters foreshadow and work with the necessary characteristics for the cluster classification. It is concluded that two clusters are assumed as cluster and two clusters have interaction links/more meaningful cooperation. Moreover, results show that only one cluster is functioning at its fullest while cluster. <![CDATA[Política social, desigualdad y pobreza, el caso de México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212018000200629&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os clusters de Portugal reconhecidos pelo Programa Operacional Fatores de Competitividade, no âmbito do Quadro de Referência Estratégica Nacional, entre 2007-13. Pretende-se através do estudo de indicadores que constituem medidas de concentração geográfica, bem como, da aplicação de um Questionário, analisar se os oito clusters reconhecidos, prefiguram, funcionam com as características necessárias para a classificação de cluster. Conclui-se que dois clusters funcionam com características de cluster e dois clusters apresentam ligações de interação/cooperação significativas. Conclui-se, ainda, que apenas um cluster está a funcionar na sua plenitude enquanto cluster.<hr/>Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze Portugal clusters recognized by the Operational Programme Competitiveness Factors within the scope of the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013. It is intended through the study of indicators of geographical concentration measures, as well as the application of a questionnaire to examine whether the eight recognized clusters foreshadow and work with the necessary characteristics for the cluster classification. It is concluded that two clusters are assumed as cluster and two clusters have interaction links/more meaningful cooperation. Moreover, results show that only one cluster is functioning at its fullest while cluster.