Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Economía, sociedad y territorio]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=1405-842120220001&lang=en vol. 22 num. 68 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Ecotourism as a Strategy for the Conservation of a Transformed Landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Los Tuxtlas es un territorio complejo en donde, por su proceso histórico, distintas dinámicas socioculturales originaron conflictos socioambientales. Este trabajo expone la transformación del paisaje de Los Tuxtlas a través de una mirada histórica, considerando la inserción del ecoturismo como estrategia local de conservación ambiental. La metodología se basó en perspectivas etnográficas y cartográficas para entender las conjeturas territoriales. Además de una disminución paulatina de cubierta vegetal, se observó que las iniciativas ecoturísticas significan un esfuerzo importante de preservación ambiental, pero han venido a la baja. Es necesario apuntalar los esfuerzos que permanecen activos y fomentar el incremento de otros.<hr/>Abstract Los Tuxtlas is a complex territory, given its historical process where different socio-cultural dynamics originated socio-environmental conflicts. The transformation of Los Tuxtlas landscape is exposed through a historical perspective, considering the insertion of ecotourism as a local strategy for environmental conservation. The methodology was based on ethnographic and cartographic perspectives to understand territorial conjectures. It was found a gradual decrease in vegetation cover and that ecotourism initiatives have made a significant effort to preserve the environment, however, they have declined. It is necessary to underpin the efforts that remain active, and encourage the increase of others. <![CDATA[Financing as a Development Strategy in Artisanal Microenterprises in San Bartolo Coyotepec, Oaxaca, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este trabajo examina la influencia de los financiamientos en el desempeño de las microempresas artesanales de San Bartolo Coyotepec, Oaxaca, México. Para ello, se aplicaron encuestas y entrevistas semiestructuradas a actores clave del desarrollo local y empresarios artesanales entre enero y febrero de 2017. Los resultados evidencian que, si bien los créditos contribuyen en el desempeño de las empresas, coexisten otros factores que influyen en su desempeño como la voluntad del líder y los problemas sociales y del contexto de las localidades donde se encuentran.<hr/>Abstract This paper examines the influence of financing on the performance of artisanal micro-enterprises in San Bartolo Coyotepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Surveys and semi-structured interviews were applied to key actors of local development and artisan entrepreneurs between January and February 2017. Results suggest that, although loans contribute to the performance of the businesses, these coexist with other factors which influence their performance such as leadership and the social problems and context of the localities where they are located. <![CDATA[Is Ecotourism a Solution or Part of the Problem of the Care Economy?]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100057&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La investigación se realizó en dos centros ecoturísticos de Chiapas (Selva Lacandona-Soconusco) . Se pretende visibilizar el efecto del ecoturismo en comunidades indígenas en sus dimensiones reproductivas y productivas, bajo la perspectiva de género y economía de cuidados. Este análisis parte de estudios de caso, con herramientas como la observación participante, diario de campo y entrevistas. Se concluye que el trabajo diferencial de hombres y mujeres evidencia que los patrones socioculturales reproducen los roles hegemónicos de género, aunado a que el ecoturismo no contempla el reparto equitativo, pues desvaloriza e invisibiliza el trabajo de cuidados de las mujeres en ambas dimensiones.<hr/>Abstract In this research two ecotourism centers in Chiapas (Selva Lacandona and Soconusco region) were studied. The effect of ecotourism in indigenous communities from the perspective of gender and care economy was addressed with emphasis in its reproductive and productive dimensions. Case study approach, participant observation, interviews and field journal were used. The conclusions reveal differential work performed by men and women, showing the prevailing sociocultural patterns that replicate the hegemonic gender roles. Moreover, ecotourism does not contribute to equitable distribution, making care work of women not valuable and invisible in productive and reproductive activities. <![CDATA[Women’s Position in State Intervention Programs: Feminized Territories (Mexico and Argentina)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100087&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El trabajo analiza el rol de las mujeres en políticas públicas de anclaje territorial. Primero, dado el contexto de crisis en ambos países donde fueron aplicados los programas, se reflexiona en torno a la importancia del Estado como articulación necesaria para la reactivación de las economías regionales. Luego, con base en datos cualitativos, se observa que la labor femenina fluctúa entre lo que la economía formal considera “reproducción social” y la producción, propiamente dicha. Finalmente, se reflexiona que el aporte económico de las mujeres es invisibilizado a partir de la artificial división patriarcal/capitalista entre lo público y lo privado.<hr/>Abstract The paper analyses women’s role in territorially anchored public policies. First, and given the context of crisis in both countries where the programs were applied, the paper reflects on the importance of the State as a necessary linkage for the reactivation of regional economies. Then, and based on qualitative data, it can be seen that women’s work fluctuates between what the formal economy considers “social reproduction” and production itself. Finally, it is reflected that women’s economic contribution is made invisible by the artificial patriarchal/capitalist division between the public and the private. <![CDATA[Peri-urban Agri-food Systems: Rural-urban Proximity Relationships in Coatepec, Ixtapaluca, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100117&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El objetivo del artículo es mostrar las prácticas que las comunidades reconstruyen, desde ámbitos locales, para recuperar y rescatar alimentos con valor histórico, vinculados y anclados a un territorio, aprovechando su interrelación con la ciudad. Los datos derivan de herramientas de investigación cualitativa y del uso de imágenes satelitales para evidenciar la transformación territorial de Coatepec, pueblo productor de maguey, ubicado en Ixtapaluca, al oriente del estado de México. Los resultados señalan la forma en la que el territorio es producto y productor de fenómenos sociales que se reconfiguran a una escala regional en el contexto global.<hr/>Abstract The objective of the paper is to show the practices that communities rebuild from local areas to recover and rescue historically valuable foods, linked and anchored to a territory, taking advantage of their interrelation with the city. The data are derived from qualitative research tools and the use of satellite images to demonstrate the territorial transformation of Coatepec, a maguey-producing town in the municipality of Ixtapaluca, eastern Mexico State. The results indicate the way in which the territory is a product and producer of social phenomena that are reconfigured on a regional scale in a global context. <![CDATA[Waiting for the Train: Territorial Productivity and the High-speed Rail Project in Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100147&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En México no existe un servicio de alta velocidad ferroviaria pero la infraestructura de transporte está asociada al desarrollo económico. Este artículo estudia el efecto en la productividad si existiera una ruta de alta velocidad que uniera Guadalajara con el Puerto de Veracruz, para ello, se estimaron funciones de producción intensiva y se añadió como regresor el índice de accesibilidad; como principales fuentes de información se utilizaron los censos económicos. Como se esperaba, se encontró que la existencia del servicio de alta velocidad incrementaría la productividad laboral. Esta evidencia sirve como insumo para analizar la viabilidad financiera de proyectos de transporte.<hr/>Abstract In Mexico, there is no high-speed rail service, but the transportation infrastructure is associated with economic development. This article studies the effect that a high-speed route linking Guadalajara with the Port of Veracruz would have on productivity if it existed. For this, intensive production functions were estimated, adding accessibility indices as regressors; the main source of information was economic censuses. As expected, it was found that the existence of a high-speed transport service would increase labor productivity. This evidence serves as an input to analyze the financial viability of transport projects. <![CDATA[The Challenge of Urban Solid Waste Management in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100177&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This research aims to identify the level of efficiency of urban solid waste management in Brazilian capitals during the period 2002 to 2016. A quantitative technique called data envelopment analysis (DEA) was adopted to compare efficiency between Brazilian capitals. It was observed that the number of materials recovered is deficient compared to the number of materials collected; the municipality that most collected materials was Vitória in 2015, and the municipality that most recovered the waste was Florianópolis in 2013.<hr/>Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa é identificar o nível de eficiência da gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos nas capitais brasileiras durante o período de 2002 a 2016. Adotou-se uma técnica quantitativa denominada data envelopment analysis (DEA) para realizar o comparativo de eficiência entre as capitais brasileiras. Como resultado, observou-se que o número de materiais recuperados é muito baixo em comparação ao número de materiais coletados, o município que mais coletou materiais foi Vitória no ano de 2015 e o município que mais recuperou os resíduos foi Florianópolis em 2013. <![CDATA[A Proposal for the Micro Regional Analysis of Violence, Subjectivities and Conflict]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100207&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Este artículo expone la estrategia metodológica y analítica utilizada para explorar los sentidos y significaciones sociales atribuidos a las violencias de represión y resistencia vividas por las y los miembros de las asambleas Ikojt de San Dionisio del Mar y Binnizá de Juchitán de Zaragoza en el marco de los conflictos por los parques de energía eólica en el periodo 2012-2014. Asimismo, comparte los principales resultados obtenidos por el análisis cualitativo comparativo realizado sobre los escenarios de violencia que marcaron las trayectorias de ambos conflictos y detonaron procesos de significación, subjetivación y desubjetivación inherentes al ámbito de lo político.<hr/>Abstract The goal of this paper is to share the methodological strategy employed to explore the social meanings and senses attached to violence of repression and resistance lived by the members of the indigenous assemblies Ikojt of San Dionisio del Mar and Binnizá of Juchitán de Zaragoza in the conflicts over wind park projects in the period 2012-2014. Additionally, it presents the main results obtained by the comparative method of qualitative analysis applied over the scenes of violence traced in the trajectories of both conflicts that triggered subjectivation, desubjectivation and meaning inherent in these political processes. <![CDATA[Economic Crisis: Potential Effects on Criminality, Poverty and Mortality Rates -Brazilian Municipalities]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100237&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This paper aims to analyze possible effects of the economic crisis caused by Covid-19 on criminality, poverty and mortality rates in Brazilian municipalities. With this purpose, the year 2015 was analyzed for being the period when the country went through the greatest recession in recent years. The Propensity Score Matching Method was used to evaluate the impact of a sharp decrease in the Gross Domestic Product. The data surveyed showed that no difference of effect was observed in the variation of these variables between the municipalities that experienced the recession and those where there was economic growth.<hr/>Resumo O objetivo deste artigo finda-se em analisar os possíveis efeitos da crise econômica decorrente da Covid-19 na criminalidade, na pobreza e na mortalidade entre os municípios do Brasil. Para isso, analisou-se o ano de 2015, período em que o país teve a maior recessão dos últimos anos, utilizando o método Propensity Score Matching visando avaliar o impacto nos aspectos sociais decorrente de uma queda expressiva no Produto Interno Bruto. Como corolário, não se teve diferença de efeito na variação dessas variáveis entre os municípios que tiveram a recessão e os que tiveram crescimento econômico. <![CDATA[Reducing Child Mortality and Meeting Millennium Development Goal 4 in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100265&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Neste trabalho são analisadas as condições que afetam a probabilidade de um município brasileiro atingir o Quarto Objetivo de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM4), de 2000 a 2015. Para isso, utilizou-se o modelo Probit espacial, com estimativas regionais. Evidenciou-se um avanço dos municípios que atingiram o ODM4 em 2015, havendo uma heterogeneidade ao longo do país. Em relação ao que afeta a probabilidade de se atingir o ODM4, encontrou-se efeito negativo para o analfabetismo feminino, para a fecundidade e a desigualdade de renda, existindo um efeito espacial dessas variáveis. Além disso, o PSF contribuiu positivamente para alcançar o ODM4.<hr/>Abstract This work aims to analyze the conditions that affect the probability of a Brazilian municipality reaching the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4), considering the period from 2000 to 2015. For this, the spatial Probit model was used, with regional estimates. There was evidence of an advance in the municipalities that reached MDG4 in 2015, with heterogeneity across the country. With regard to what affects the probability of meeting MDG4, a negative effect was found for female illiteracy, fertility and income inequality, with a spatial effect of these variables. In addition, the PSF contributed positively to achieving MDG4. <![CDATA[Central American Migrant Caravans in Mexico. Origin, Transit and Destination]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100297&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Neste trabalho são analisadas as condições que afetam a probabilidade de um município brasileiro atingir o Quarto Objetivo de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM4), de 2000 a 2015. Para isso, utilizou-se o modelo Probit espacial, com estimativas regionais. Evidenciou-se um avanço dos municípios que atingiram o ODM4 em 2015, havendo uma heterogeneidade ao longo do país. Em relação ao que afeta a probabilidade de se atingir o ODM4, encontrou-se efeito negativo para o analfabetismo feminino, para a fecundidade e a desigualdade de renda, existindo um efeito espacial dessas variáveis. Além disso, o PSF contribuiu positivamente para alcançar o ODM4.<hr/>Abstract This work aims to analyze the conditions that affect the probability of a Brazilian municipality reaching the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4), considering the period from 2000 to 2015. For this, the spatial Probit model was used, with regional estimates. There was evidence of an advance in the municipalities that reached MDG4 in 2015, with heterogeneity across the country. With regard to what affects the probability of meeting MDG4, a negative effect was found for female illiteracy, fertility and income inequality, with a spatial effect of these variables. In addition, the PSF contributed positively to achieving MDG4. <![CDATA[Regional Planning and Territorial Planning. Contemporary views from Spain and Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212022000100303&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo Neste trabalho são analisadas as condições que afetam a probabilidade de um município brasileiro atingir o Quarto Objetivo de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM4), de 2000 a 2015. Para isso, utilizou-se o modelo Probit espacial, com estimativas regionais. Evidenciou-se um avanço dos municípios que atingiram o ODM4 em 2015, havendo uma heterogeneidade ao longo do país. Em relação ao que afeta a probabilidade de se atingir o ODM4, encontrou-se efeito negativo para o analfabetismo feminino, para a fecundidade e a desigualdade de renda, existindo um efeito espacial dessas variáveis. Além disso, o PSF contribuiu positivamente para alcançar o ODM4.<hr/>Abstract This work aims to analyze the conditions that affect the probability of a Brazilian municipality reaching the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4), considering the period from 2000 to 2015. For this, the spatial Probit model was used, with regional estimates. There was evidence of an advance in the municipalities that reached MDG4 in 2015, with heterogeneity across the country. With regard to what affects the probability of meeting MDG4, a negative effect was found for female illiteracy, fertility and income inequality, with a spatial effect of these variables. In addition, the PSF contributed positively to achieving MDG4.