Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Economía, sociedad y territorio]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=1405-842120150002&lang=en vol. 15 num. 48 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[<b>Foreword</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Public regulations and ground rent exploitation</b>: <b>the real estate boom in Ñuñoa, Santiago, 2000-2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Esta investigación presenta un análisis de la renovación urbana del área de Irarrázaval poniente, comuna de Ñuñoa, Santiago, que durante la década pasada experimentó una intensificación de producción privada residencial en altura orientada a segmentos medio-altos. Los resultados muestran el activo rol que juegan, a nivel local, las regulaciones estatales neoliberales en Chile para fijar el más intenso uso del suelo a explotarse exclusivamente por empresas inmobiliarias. Se muestra además el diferencial creciente de rentas de suelo capturadas entre empresas y residentes propietarios tradicionales, lo que implica gentrificación para un segmento minoritario de éstos.<hr/>This paper presents an analysis of the urban renewal process of the Irarrázaval poniente area, in the Ñuñoa municipality, Santiago, Chile, which during the past decade witnessed an intensive market-led real estate housing production, aimed at middle-upper income strata. Results show the active role played by state-led neoliberal policies, deployed at local-level, which aim to define the highest land use to be exclusively exploited by real estate firms. It is also shown the increasingly differential ground rent levels either captured by realtors and owner-residents, which means gentrification for a smaller number of residents. <![CDATA[<b>Is Mexico city polycentric?</b>: <b>New data and algorithms for urban centralities detection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Con la emergencia de nuevos algoritmos para el análisis de redes y la aparición de bases de datos económicas desagregadas a nivel de unidad, se plantea un método distinto a los anteriormente reportados en la literatura especializada para detectar centralidades urbanas. La primera parte define la centralidad urbana y presenta una disertación teórica sobre la condición policéntrica. Posteriormente, se muestran los métodos anteriormente usados para la medición de las centralidades y se describen las nuevas herramientas empleadas en esta investigación. Finalmente, se presentan algunos resultados de este método aplicado como caso de estudio en la ciudad de México.<hr/>With the emergence of new algorithms for network analysis and the development of economic databases disaggregated at a unit level, I propose a method different from those previously reported in the literature to detect urban centralities. The first part defines urban centrality and presents a theoretical debate on the polycentric condition. The second part shows previously used methods for measuring centralities and describes the new tools used in this research. Finally, we present some results from this method applied as a case study in Mexico City. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of the changes in Procampo program on the rural economy of southeastern Mexico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Esta investigación examina los efectos derivados de cambios en la implementación del Programa de Apoyos Directos al Campo (Procampo) en la economía rural del sureste mexicano. El análisis se basa en la aplicación del modelo de multiplicadores a una Matriz de Contabilidad Social construida con datos de la Encuesta Nacional a Hogares Rurales de México. Los resultados muestran que cualquier modificación del Procampo afecta a todas las actividades económicas de la región y que el esquema de pagos diferenciados, vigente desde el 2009, tiene un efecto más progresivo que el esquema de pago único por hectárea aplicado hasta el 2008.<hr/>This research analyses the effects on the rural economy of the mexican southeastern rural region that result from changes in the implementation of the Program of Direct Supports for the Countryside (Programa de Apoyos Directos al Campo, Procampo). The analysis is based on a Multipliers Model applied to a Social Accounting Matrix constructed with data from the National Survey on Rural Households in Mexico. The results show that any modification to Procampo affects all the economic activities in the region and that the differentiated payment scheme per hectare applicable since 2009 has a more progressive effect than the previous single payment per hectare applied until 2008. <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions of environmental impacts of ceramic industry in the municipality of state Crato Ceará, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi analisar os impactos socioambientais causados pela indústria cerâmica vermelha, mediante a perspectiva dos trabalhadores e das pessoas residentes no entorno das fábricas. Os índices aplicados nesse estudo, IQA e ISA, demonstraram que as atividades exercidas pela indústria cerâmica levaram à degradação do meio ambiente, na visão dos entrevistados. No entanto, tais atividades também foram responsáveis pela criação de novos empregos.<hr/>The aim of this study was to analyze the environmental impacts caused by the red ceramic industry, based on the vision of workers and residents in region from Crato - Ceará. Two indexes were calculated: IQA and ISA. The results showed that in the view of respondents the ceramic industry led to degradation. However, these activities were also responsible for creating new jobs. <![CDATA[<b>Manufacturing production in two regions of the state of Mexico</b>: <b>an assessment of Kaldor's laws</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Con base en una reinterpretación de las dos primeras leyes de Kaldor y en la estimación de modelos de panel, en este documento se muestra que los sectores productores de sustancias químicas y productos relacionados y de productos metálicos, maquinaria y equipo tienen efectos significativos en el crecimiento de la manufactura de las regiones Toluca-Lerma y Valle de México durante el periodo 1970-2008 (primera ley). Adicionalmente, se encuentra que existen economías de escala crecientes o constantes en la primera regiósn y constantes o decrecientes en la segunda (segunda ley), todo lo cual contribuye a explicar sus diferencias de crecimiento.<hr/>On the basis of the first two Kaldor's Laws and the estimation of panel data models, this paper shows that the generation of chemical products and others as well as metal products, machinery and equipment have significant effects on the growth rate of the manufacturing production of the Toluca-Lerma and Valle de México regions over the period 1970-2008 (First law). In addition, our results suggest the existence of increasing or constant-scale economies in the former and constant or decreasing-scale economies in the latter (Second law), which contributes to explain the differences in their growth. <![CDATA[<b>The role of collaboration and institutional coordination in competitive adjustment in Montebelluna shoe district</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O artigo analisa um caso emblemático de colaboração entre empresas e comunidade numa dada região -o distrito calçadista de Montebelluna na Itália- onde se dá a criação de instituições que reforçam e propiciam a superação de obstáculos como a concorrência com países com diferenciais significativos de custo. Fez-se um estudo teórico e de campo de um arranjo produtivo chegando-se a conclusão de que foi a colaboração que possibilitou a diferenciação de produtos e o deslocamento da parte da produção que não comprometia a base local. As instituições do distrito atuaram como protagonistas formatando o modelo de distrito multi localizado.<hr/>The paper analyzes an emblematic case of collaboration between companies and community in a particular region - the footwear district of Montebelluna in Italy - where institutions are created to support and help to overcome obstacles, such as competition against countries with insurmountable cost advantages. A theoretical study and a field research on a cluster were made, reaching the conclusion that collaboration allowed the differentiation of the products and displacement of part of the production, without compromising the local base. The institutions of the district acted as protagonists, formatting the model of "multi located district." <![CDATA[<b>Recent trends in the spatial distribution of industries and services in São Paulo and ABC paulista</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O artigo aponta as causas e efeitos do processo de concentração e, principalmente, desconcentração industrial brasileira na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, com ênfase na cidade de São Paulo e no ABC paulista. A partir de dados do Produto Interno Bruto por município e do mercado de trabalho formal, mostra-se que a capital paulista concentra serviços mais dinâmicos ligados à tecnologia, finanças e gestão da cadeia produtiva, enquanto o ABC ainda possui sua economia fortemente ancorada no setor industrial tradicional, mais especificamente na indústria de transportes, sem desenvolvimento expressivo do setor de serviços.<hr/>The article analyzes the main causes and effects acting on the concentration and especially the subsequent spread process of the Brazilian industry from São Paulo/SP and the ABC cities. Using data about Brazilian labor market and product by sectors, this paper analyzes the current trends and settings of labor markets in these territories. Data indicate that while São Paulo capital concentrates dynamic services related to technology, finance and supply chain management, the ABC region economy remains strongly anchored on the traditional industrial sector; specifically auto industry, without significant development of the services sector. <![CDATA[<b>Towards a taxonomy of regional innovation systems in Mexico</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en En este trabajo se examina el nivel de heterogeneidad de las entidades federativas mexicanas en cuanto a su potencial y desempeño como sistemas de innovación. El objetivo central es la clasificación de los sistemas regionales de innovación (SRI), en el contexto de las entidades federativas, a partir de una serie de indicadores correspondientes a sus condiciones socioeconómicas e institucionales, así como a sus capacidades y resultados en innovación. Mediante análisis de clusters se muestra la existencia de seis tipos de SRI en México, con fortalezas y debilidades distintivas, en términos de las dimensiones de innovación propuestas.<hr/>This paper examines the level of heterogeneity of mexican states regarding their potential and performance as innovation systems. The main objective is the classification of the regional innovation systems (RIS), in the context of the states of the country, based on a series of indicators that correspond to their social-economic and institutional conditions, as well as their capacities and innovation results. Cluster analysis shows the existence of six types of RIS in Mexico, with distinctive strengths and weaknesses, in terms of the proposed innovation dimensions. <![CDATA[<b>Cities in parallel</b>: <b>Cartagena and Veracruz</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en En este trabajo se examina el nivel de heterogeneidad de las entidades federativas mexicanas en cuanto a su potencial y desempeño como sistemas de innovación. El objetivo central es la clasificación de los sistemas regionales de innovación (SRI), en el contexto de las entidades federativas, a partir de una serie de indicadores correspondientes a sus condiciones socioeconómicas e institucionales, así como a sus capacidades y resultados en innovación. Mediante análisis de clusters se muestra la existencia de seis tipos de SRI en México, con fortalezas y debilidades distintivas, en términos de las dimensiones de innovación propuestas.<hr/>This paper examines the level of heterogeneity of mexican states regarding their potential and performance as innovation systems. The main objective is the classification of the regional innovation systems (RIS), in the context of the states of the country, based on a series of indicators that correspond to their social-economic and institutional conditions, as well as their capacities and innovation results. Cluster analysis shows the existence of six types of RIS in Mexico, with distinctive strengths and weaknesses, in terms of the proposed innovation dimensions. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges of urban competitiveness in México</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-84212015000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en En este trabajo se examina el nivel de heterogeneidad de las entidades federativas mexicanas en cuanto a su potencial y desempeño como sistemas de innovación. El objetivo central es la clasificación de los sistemas regionales de innovación (SRI), en el contexto de las entidades federativas, a partir de una serie de indicadores correspondientes a sus condiciones socioeconómicas e institucionales, así como a sus capacidades y resultados en innovación. Mediante análisis de clusters se muestra la existencia de seis tipos de SRI en México, con fortalezas y debilidades distintivas, en términos de las dimensiones de innovación propuestas.<hr/>This paper examines the level of heterogeneity of mexican states regarding their potential and performance as innovation systems. The main objective is the classification of the regional innovation systems (RIS), in the context of the states of the country, based on a series of indicators that correspond to their social-economic and institutional conditions, as well as their capacities and innovation results. Cluster analysis shows the existence of six types of RIS in Mexico, with distinctive strengths and weaknesses, in terms of the proposed innovation dimensions.