Scielo RSS <![CDATA[América Latina en la historia económica]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=1405-225320160003&lang=pt vol. 23 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[As origens da terra jesuítica na capitania do Rio de Janeiro e a implantação do engenho Velho no século XVII]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo: Este artigo relaciona a fundação da cidade do Rio de Janeiro em fins do século XVI com o papel desempenhado pela Companhia de Jesus nesse processo. Em função de sua participação nas lutas de conquista da Guanabara, foi uma das maiores recebedoras de apoio político e financeiro. Em um primeiro momento, buscar-se-á apresentar a conjuntura geopolítica da localidade e o papel desempenhado pelas alianças entre europeus e indígenas para a consolidação da cidade. Em uma segunda fase, será demonstrado como a Companhia de Jesus se estruturou na região, mantendo relações com as autoridades e com os moradores, bem como seus mecanismos de inserção social na vida econômica da capitania por meio da implementação, no século XVII, do engenho Velho e da produção de cana de açúcar.<hr/>Abstract: This article relates the foundation of the Rio de Janeiro city at the end of the 16th century with the role played by the Society of Jesus in this process. Because of its participation in the struggles for conquest of Guanabara, the Order was one of the biggest receivers of political and financial support. In a first moment, will seek to introduce the geopolitical environment of the locality and the role played by alliances between Europeans and indigenous to the consolidation of the city. In a second phase, will be shown as the Society of Jesus structured in the region, maintaining relations with the authorities and with the residents, as well as their mechanisms of social integration in the economic life of the captaincy by implementing, in the 17th century, the engenho Velho and the production of sugar cane. <![CDATA[Indigenous and Foreign Inhabitants of the Southern Andes in the Colonial Period]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300037&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Investigación de larga duración sobre los movimientos de la población indígena de Chichas, Tarija y Tucumán (siglos XVII y XVIII) que, para el periodo previo a las reformas borbónicas, enfrenta la gran dificultad de comparar e integrar datos dispares. Chichas y Tarija en el siglo XVII eran receptoras de población indígena originada en el amplio espacio que iba desde el Cuzco hasta el Tucumán. El estudio del mismo proceso visto desde el Tucumán para fines del siglo XVIII nos muestra que los movimientos de población invirtieron su orientación: Tucumán dejó de ser un espacio expulsor de cuantiosa población indígena hacia Chichas y Tarija para convertirse en un espacio receptor de población desde esos mismos lugares, situación que nos advierte sobre la existencia de grupos de población que se mueven en un espacio común y de acuerdo con las coyunturas.<hr/>Abstract: Long term research project on the movements of the indigenous populations of Chichas, Tarija and Tucumán (17th and 18th centuries), which, for the period prior to the Bourbon reforms, experiences great difficulty comparing and integrating disparate information. In the 17th century, Chichas and Tarija were recipients of indigenous populations originating in the broad region that spans from Cuzco to Tucumán. Studying the same process as seen from Tucumán at the end of the 18th century shows that the population movements reversed: Tucumán ceased to be an ejector of significant indigenous populations toward Chichas and Tarija and instead became a recipient of populations originating in these same places, a situation that indicates the existence of population groups that move within a common area and according to a set of circumstances. <![CDATA[Family Agriculture and Mapuche Merchants in the Regional Market of Nueva Imperial, Southern Chile, 1870-1930]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300080&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Este artículo estudia la agricultura familiar y las estrategias de los productores mapuche durante el proceso de inserción en el mercado capitalista del Departamento de Nueva Imperial, sur de Chile, en el periodo 1870-1930, por medio del análisis de la estructura productiva y tecnológica agrícola, la participación de hombres y mujeres en los circuitos agrarios intraétnicos, el comercio de bienes y las inversiones en mejoras prediales, adquisición de tierras y maquinarias industriales. Tales eventos pueden asociarse al dinamismo y el protagonismo de los actores mapuche en la formación del mercado regional de Nueva Imperial.<hr/>Abstract: This article studies family agriculture and the strategies of Mapuche farmers during the process of their insertion into the capitalist market of the Nueva Imperial Province, southern Chile, in the period 1870-1930, through an analysis of the agrarian technological and production structure, the participation of men and women in the inter-ethnic agrarian circuits, the goods trade, and investments in improvements to property, acquisition of land and industrial machinery. Such events can be associated with the dynamism and increased profile of Mapuche stakeholders in the formation of the Nueva Imperial regional market. <![CDATA[The Twin Crises (Problems of the Balance of Accounts and Banking) of 1913 and their Effects on Currency and Banks]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300115&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen. Este artículo ofrece un recuento de los principales efectos ocasionados por la guerra civil de México (1913-1916) en la moneda y la actividad bancaria, especialmente en 1913, cuando comenzaron los problemas económicos derivados del golpe de Estado que llevó a Victoriano Huerta al poder. Entre esos problemas destacan el desequilibrio de la balanza de pagos que se convirtió en crisis bancaria, que culminó con el establecimiento del curso forzoso y de una moratoria general de pagos para los bancos. La guerra civil y el deterioro de la economía continuaron de manera progresiva en los años siguientes y al final de los años veinte se saldó con la quiebra de la mayoría de los bancos que conformaban al sistema bancario porfirista.<hr/>Abstract. This article is an account of the major effects wrought by the Mexican civil war (1913-1916) on the currency and on banking activity, particularly in 1913, when the economic problems resulting from the coup d'état that brought Victoriano Huerta to power first began. These problems include the disequilibrium in the balance of payments that turned into a banking crisis, which concluded with the abandonment of the gold standard and the establishment of bank notes as legal tender. The civil war and the deterioration of the economy continued progressively during the following years and at the end of the 1920s resulted in the bankruptcy of the majority of the banks comprising the Porfirian banking system. <![CDATA[Agrarian Mechanization and State Support in Chile (1942-1973)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300147&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen. Frente al rezago del sector agrícola, a partir de la década de 1940 el Estado en Chile asumió como tarea el fomento de la mecanización de faenas, creando para ello una serie de instituciones. Tras tres décadas, a pesar del aumento significativo del parque nacional el déficit no pudo ser revertido, manteniéndose la necesidad de importar grandes volúmenes de alimento. El artículo analiza el impacto de las políticas estatales de fomento a la mecanización, describiendo la evolución del parque en el ámbito nacional y regional, considerando para ello el contexto productivo y las condiciones en que se produjo la incorporación de maquinaria. Finalmente, se profundiza en la participación del Estado a partir del caso del Servicio de Equipos Agrícolas Mecanizados (SEAM), órgano creado en específico para la materia.<hr/>Abstract. Faced with the lag in the agrarian sector, from the 1940s onwards, the state of Chile embarked on the task of promoting the mechanization of agrarian chores, creating a series of institutions to that end. After three decades, despite the significant expansion of the national productive apparatus, the government had failed to halt the deficit, meaning that the need to import large quantities of food remained. The article analyzes the impact of state policies of promoting mechanization, describing the evolution of the productive apparatus on a national and regional level, and, to this end, considering the context production and the conditions under which the incorporation of machinery took place. Finally, the article analyzes state participation on the basis of the case of the Mechanized Agricultural Equipment Service (Servicio de Equipos Agrícolas Mecanizados, SEAM), a body created specifically for this purpose. <![CDATA[Regional Modernization and Centrality in the Case of Guamuchil, Sinaloa, Mexico (1940-1960)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300174&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Este artículo analiza un periodo de dos décadas que representa el crecimiento inicial de la ciudad de Guamúchil, población ubicada en la región del Évora, en la zona agrícola del estado de Sinaloa en el noroeste mexicano. Durante las dos décadas que transcurrieron desde 1940 hasta 1960, Guamúchil adquiere centralidad dentro de la región debido a los efectos modernizadores de su zona de influencia, lo que permite mayores niveles de producción y diversificación de cultivos. Lo anterior propició que las actividades económicas y sociales se concentraran en un punto específico de la región: la ciudad de Guamúchil, un sitio que no termina de definirse como rural o urbano.<hr/>Abstract: This article analyzes a period of two decades that represents the initial growth of the city of Guamuchil, a built-up area in the Evora region, in the agrarian zone of the state of Sinaloa in the north west of Mexico. During the two decades that elapsed between 1940 and 1960, Guamuchil acquired importance in the region due to the modernizing effects of its area of influence, permitting higher production levels and crop diversification. This brought about the concentration of economic and social activities in a specific point in the region: the city of Guamuchil, a location that cannot be classified as either entirely rural or urban. <![CDATA[Expansão e crise das ferrovias brasileiras nas primeiras décadas do século XX]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300204&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo: A partir da década de 1940, no Brasil, iniciou-se um novo ciclo de modelo de negócios ferroviários, fundamentado na estatização do sistema. O objetivo neste artigo é analisar o processo de expansão das linhas, o aumento da oferta dos serviços oferecidos e a expansão da categoria ferroviária, e a relação destes fatores com a estatização das ferrovias. Seria correto afirmar que estas ferrovias foram se tornando ineficientes ao longo das duas primeiras décadas do século XX, particularmente a partir da primeira guerra mundial? Conclui-se neste trabalho, que as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas ferrovias brasileiras, que as conduziram à estatização, não é fenômeno que passou a ocorrer a partir da década de 1940, exclusivamente. Pois, na verdade, grande parte das mazelas que atingiram as ferrovias brasileiras e as conduziram à estatização já se manifestavam desde os primeiros anos do século XX.<hr/>Abstract: From the 1940s in the Brazil, started a new cycle of rail business model, based on the nationalization of the system. The objective of this paper is to analyze the process of expansion of lines that increased the supply of services offered and the expansion of railway category, and the relationship of these factors with the nationalization of the railways. Would it be correct to say that these railways were becoming ineffective over the first two decades of the twentieth century, particularly after World War I? We conclude in this paper that these difficulties faced by Brazilian railways, which led them to the nationalization, is not a phenomenon that started to occur from the 1940s, exclusively. Really, much of the ills that hit the Brazilian railroads and led them to the nationalization already had been manifested from the early years of the twentieth century. <![CDATA[Guillermo Burgos Lejonagoitia, <strong><em>Gobernar las Indias. Venalidad y méritos en la provisión de cargos americanos, 1701-1746</em></strong>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300237&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo: A partir da década de 1940, no Brasil, iniciou-se um novo ciclo de modelo de negócios ferroviários, fundamentado na estatização do sistema. O objetivo neste artigo é analisar o processo de expansão das linhas, o aumento da oferta dos serviços oferecidos e a expansão da categoria ferroviária, e a relação destes fatores com a estatização das ferrovias. Seria correto afirmar que estas ferrovias foram se tornando ineficientes ao longo das duas primeiras décadas do século XX, particularmente a partir da primeira guerra mundial? Conclui-se neste trabalho, que as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas ferrovias brasileiras, que as conduziram à estatização, não é fenômeno que passou a ocorrer a partir da década de 1940, exclusivamente. Pois, na verdade, grande parte das mazelas que atingiram as ferrovias brasileiras e as conduziram à estatização já se manifestavam desde os primeiros anos do século XX.<hr/>Abstract: From the 1940s in the Brazil, started a new cycle of rail business model, based on the nationalization of the system. The objective of this paper is to analyze the process of expansion of lines that increased the supply of services offered and the expansion of railway category, and the relationship of these factors with the nationalization of the railways. Would it be correct to say that these railways were becoming ineffective over the first two decades of the twentieth century, particularly after World War I? We conclude in this paper that these difficulties faced by Brazilian railways, which led them to the nationalization, is not a phenomenon that started to occur from the 1940s, exclusively. Really, much of the ills that hit the Brazilian railroads and led them to the nationalization already had been manifested from the early years of the twentieth century. <![CDATA[Pilar López-Bejarano, <strong><em>Un Estado a crédito: deudas y configuración estatal de la Nueva Granada en la primera mitad del siglo XIX</em></strong>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300242&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo: A partir da década de 1940, no Brasil, iniciou-se um novo ciclo de modelo de negócios ferroviários, fundamentado na estatização do sistema. O objetivo neste artigo é analisar o processo de expansão das linhas, o aumento da oferta dos serviços oferecidos e a expansão da categoria ferroviária, e a relação destes fatores com a estatização das ferrovias. Seria correto afirmar que estas ferrovias foram se tornando ineficientes ao longo das duas primeiras décadas do século XX, particularmente a partir da primeira guerra mundial? Conclui-se neste trabalho, que as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas ferrovias brasileiras, que as conduziram à estatização, não é fenômeno que passou a ocorrer a partir da década de 1940, exclusivamente. Pois, na verdade, grande parte das mazelas que atingiram as ferrovias brasileiras e as conduziram à estatização já se manifestavam desde os primeiros anos do século XX.<hr/>Abstract: From the 1940s in the Brazil, started a new cycle of rail business model, based on the nationalization of the system. The objective of this paper is to analyze the process of expansion of lines that increased the supply of services offered and the expansion of railway category, and the relationship of these factors with the nationalization of the railways. Would it be correct to say that these railways were becoming ineffective over the first two decades of the twentieth century, particularly after World War I? We conclude in this paper that these difficulties faced by Brazilian railways, which led them to the nationalization, is not a phenomenon that started to occur from the 1940s, exclusively. Really, much of the ills that hit the Brazilian railroads and led them to the nationalization already had been manifested from the early years of the twentieth century. <![CDATA[Bernd Hausberger y Antonio Ibarra (coords.), <strong><em>Oro y plata en los inicios de la economía global: de las minas a la moneda</em></strong>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532016000300245&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo: A partir da década de 1940, no Brasil, iniciou-se um novo ciclo de modelo de negócios ferroviários, fundamentado na estatização do sistema. O objetivo neste artigo é analisar o processo de expansão das linhas, o aumento da oferta dos serviços oferecidos e a expansão da categoria ferroviária, e a relação destes fatores com a estatização das ferrovias. Seria correto afirmar que estas ferrovias foram se tornando ineficientes ao longo das duas primeiras décadas do século XX, particularmente a partir da primeira guerra mundial? Conclui-se neste trabalho, que as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas ferrovias brasileiras, que as conduziram à estatização, não é fenômeno que passou a ocorrer a partir da década de 1940, exclusivamente. Pois, na verdade, grande parte das mazelas que atingiram as ferrovias brasileiras e as conduziram à estatização já se manifestavam desde os primeiros anos do século XX.<hr/>Abstract: From the 1940s in the Brazil, started a new cycle of rail business model, based on the nationalization of the system. The objective of this paper is to analyze the process of expansion of lines that increased the supply of services offered and the expansion of railway category, and the relationship of these factors with the nationalization of the railways. Would it be correct to say that these railways were becoming ineffective over the first two decades of the twentieth century, particularly after World War I? We conclude in this paper that these difficulties faced by Brazilian railways, which led them to the nationalization, is not a phenomenon that started to occur from the 1940s, exclusively. Really, much of the ills that hit the Brazilian railroads and led them to the nationalization already had been manifested from the early years of the twentieth century.