Scielo RSS <![CDATA[América Latina en la historia económica]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=1405-225320220001&lang=pt vol. 29 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Private Capital Investment in Public Services Financing: The Case of the Municipal Districts of Antioquia (Colombia), 1912-1931]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar un caso de la inversión para la provisión y mejoramiento de servicios públicos en distritos municipales de Antioquia y su financiamiento por parte del capital privado. Con tal fin se examinan los empréstitos otorgados por parte de una casa comercial-bancaria de Medellín, y en especial por uno de sus socios, en el periodo 1912-1931. Dicha firma obtuvo créditos de bancos extranjeros, recursos que canalizaron a numerosos distritos municipales. El texto revela hechos que tuvieron importancia en el crecimiento de Antioquia, esto es, el flujo de capital extranjero, así como el papel que desempeñaron intermediarios financieros de Medellín, los cuales facilitaron su ingreso en el circuito financiero local.<hr/>Abstract In this paper I analyze the growth of credit that took place in many municipalities in the department of Antioquia (1912-1931). Credits were offered by a wealthy Brokerage House which at the time had abandoned foreign trade and was investing its profits in urban business and banking. Long time relations established with foreign banks allowed the commercial house to benefit from foreign loans, sums of money that were channeled to the region, and were intended to promote the development of public service infrastructure in rural areas. The article shows the flow of foreign capital into the region and the role played by financial intermediaries in Medellin which facilitated its entry into local financial circuits. <![CDATA[Baldíos, possession rights and royal land during the first composición process in Charcas. Viceroyalty of Peru, 1591-1597]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen A partir de un corpus documental diverso, que incluye disposiciones regias, correspondencia vicerregia, pareceres locales y el juicio de residencia del juez de composición Osores de Ulloa, este artículo explora la figura jurídica de las tierras baldías e indaga en las relaciones posesorias que distintos vecinos ejercieron en ellas en el distrito de Charcas (virreinato del Perú) en la década de 1590. En ese sentido, se propone que, si hasta la década de 1580 las esferas virreinales peruanas propiciaban el uso común y el reparto gracioso de los baldíos, la primera composición y venta de tierras, ordenada por reales cédulas de 1591, tuvo un papel central en el reforzamiento del dominio regio sobre las tierras baldías y sobre las tierras indígenas consideradas vacantes, a partir del accionar de los jueces comisionados que en el terreno dotaron de referente material a una noción jurídica en disputa.<hr/>Abstract Based on the analysis of a rich documentary corpus, including royal dispositions, viceroyal letters, reports and the residencia of the Charcas judge of composición Osores de Ulloa, this article explores the legal notion of baldíos and it analyzes the possessory relations exercised in Charcas (viceroyalty of Peru) in the 1590s. It proposes that, if until the 1580s Peruvian viceroyal spheres favored common use and graceful distribution of baldíos, the first composición de tierras ordered by 1591 royal dispositions played a significant role in the reinforcement of royal domain of baldíos and "vacant" indigenous lands, taking into account judges actions which provided material reference to a disputed legal notion. <![CDATA[A Perdigão e a formação de um business group no Brasil: características e estratégias (1934-2009)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a Perdigão, S. A., como um modelo de business group consolidado no Brasil entre 1934-2009. Submersa em um cenário repleto de instabilidades e incertezas que costumam caracterizar as economias periféricas, a Perdigão promoveu estratégias que permitiram diferenciá-la da maioria das grandes empresas consolidadas em economias maduras. Portanto, concluímos que ao longo de seus 75 anos de história, a Perdigão caracterizou-se como um modelo organizacional business group capaz de adotar estratégias que permitiram explorar as sinergias criadas pelas atividades complementares entre os setores de carnes e derivados e se consolidar entre as maiores da indústria de alimentos no Brasil.<hr/>Abstract The main objective of this work was to present Perdigão, S.A., as a model of a business group consolidated in Brazil between 1934-2009. Submerged in a scenario full of instabilities and uncertainties that usually characterize peripheral economies, Perdigão promoted strategies that allowed it to differentiate it from most large companies consolidated in mature economies. Therefore, we conclude that throughout its 75 years of history, Perdigão has been characterized as a business group organizational model capable of adopting strategies that allowed it to exploit the synergies created by the complementary activities between the meat and meat products sectors and consolidate itself among the largest of the food industry in Brazil. <![CDATA[Prices, Wages and Living Standards of Unskilled Workers in Buenos Aires During the First Half of the 19th Century]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen En las últimas décadas, la historiografía latinoamericana se ha planteado múltiples preguntas y desafíos metodológicos sobre el problema del nivel de vida de las sociedades del continente en perspectiva histórica. El objetivo de este trabajo es abordar estos desafíos para el caso de la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) durante la primera mitad del siglo xix. Utilizamos nuevas series de precios de una variedad de artículos de amplio consumo y de ingresos salariales de mano de obra de poca calificación (jornales de los peones albañiles y sueldos de empleados estatales de bajo rango). Con base en diversas canastas de consumo de subsistencia disponibles, presentamos diferentes posibilidades de series de salarios reales (welfare ratio). Así, examinamos la evolución del nivel de vida de los trabajadores no calificados porteños entre 1824 y 1850, durante un periodo de importantes transformaciones socio-económica y políticas.<hr/>Abstract In recent decades, Latin American historiography has raised many questions and methodological challenges regarding the standard of living of the continent’s societies in historical perspective. The aim of this paper is to address these challenges for the case of the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina) during the first half of the 19th century. We use new series of prices of a variety of items of wide consumption, and series of wage income of low-skilled labor (wages of bricklayers and salaries of low-ranking state employees). Based on various available subsistence consumption baskets, we present different possibilities of real wage series (welfare ratio). Thus, we examine the evolution of the living standards of unskilled workers in Buenos Aires between 1824 and 1850, during a period of important socio-economic and political transformations. <![CDATA[Global trafficking and local bussines: the slave trade of the Philippine Royal Company in the Rio de la Plata, 1786-1790]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen Esta investigación se centra en las operaciones de la Real Compañía de Filipinas en el mercado global, en este caso, sobre la trata de esclavos entre África y América como acercamiento a las dimensiones locales del comercio global. Se examinan las causas y consecuencias de una empresa que, aunque fallida, abrió un nuevo ciclo en la trata negrera rioplatense y su inserción en la economía global de fines del siglo XVIII.<hr/>Abstract This research focuses on the operations of the Philippine Royal Company in the global market, on the slave trade between Africa and America as a way to approach to the local dimensions of global trade. It examines the causes and consequences of a company that, despite its failure, opened a new cycle in the Río de la Plata slave trade and its inclusion in the global economy of the late 18th century. <![CDATA[A questão racial e os limites do desenvolvimento econômico-social brasileiro: uma perspectiva crítica]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo O objetivo é analisar a questão racial brasileira como obstáculo histórico ao desenvolvimento econômico-social do país, a partir de uma perspectiva crítica marxista. Considera-se que as relações sociais são moldadas não somente pelo regime de classes como também pelo mito da democracia racial como ferramenta de uma velada segregação –que, como tal, também se mostra uma densa barreira ao fortalecimento de um proletariado sólido–. A metodologia utilizada consistiu em defrontar a argumentação das clássicas teses de Florestan Fernandes e Octávio Ianni com artigos científicos mais recentes, levantando convergências e divergências, para, a partir dos dados levantados, demonstrar que a conscientização acerca da questão racial é condição sine qua non para a legitimação e o fortalecimento do proletariado.<hr/>Abstract The objective is to analyze the Brazilian racial issue as a historical obstacle to the country’s economic and social development, from a critical Marxist perspective. It is considered that social relations are shaped not only by the class regime but also by the myth of racial democracy as a tool of veiled segregation –which, as such, also proves to be dense barrier to the strengthening of a solid proletariat–. The methodology used consisted of confronting the arguments of the classic theses of Florestan Fernandes and Octávio Ianni with more recent scientific articles, raising convergences and divergences, in order to demonstrate, from the data collected, that awareness about the racial issue is a sine qua non condition for legitimation. and the strengthening of the proletariat. <![CDATA[Confronting Statistical Sources of Fiscal Budget for Mexico, 1934-1956]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen El balance presupuestario del gobierno mexicano es el indicador principal para evaluar la política fiscal y su impacto macroeconómico. El objetivo de este artículo es confrontar las series del balance fiscal de las fuentes primarias y secundarias y discernir cuál puede ser la más adecuada en la investigación histórico-económica de la etapa del desarrollo con inflación, 1934-1956, en México. Nuestra hipótesis señala que la fuente primaria en términos brutos que utiliza la metodología ingreso-egreso-balance no es la adecuada para evaluar la política gubernamental debido a que incluye rubros que distorsionan el balance fiscal y su impacto macro. La fuente primaria a utilizar es la que aplica la metodología del cálculo del balance fiscal vía su financiamiento. Las fuentes secundarias que usan la primera opción reproducen la deficiencia anotada, lo cual implica problemas de interpretación histórica. Al respecto, realizamos un análisis metodológico de la historiografía sobre el comportamiento de las finanzas públicas.<hr/>Abstract The budget balance is the main indicator to evaluate the fiscal policy and its macroeconomic impact. The objective of this study is to confront the series of the budget balance provided by the primary and secondary sources and find out which is the most adequate for economic history research in the period 1934-1956. Our hypothesis states that the primary source in gross terms, which is based on the income/expenditure/balance methodology, is not adequate to evaluate the government policy because it includes items that distorts the fiscal balance and its macroeconomic impact. The way to resolve this issue is to use the primary source that applies the methodology to calculate the fiscal balance through its financing. The secondary sources based on the first option reproduced the noted deficiency and affected the historical interpretation, something that is shown with a methodological analysis of the historiography on the performance of the public finances. <![CDATA[Industrial electrification in Chile: 1895-1955]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532022000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen La presente investigación analiza la trayectoria de la electrificación de las industrias chilenas entre 1895 y 1955, como ejemplo de aquellos países periféricos de industrialización tardía que no lograron insertarse al grupo de países de ingreso alto. Empleando datos inéditos sobre la potencia mecánica industrial, se sostiene que los trastornos generados por las guerras mundiales provocaron dificultades en el proceso de modernización industrial, motivando un retorno al uso de motores primarios por sobre los eléctricos. Este estudio demuestra que la transición hacia el motor eléctrico no estuvo exenta de conflictos, y que tales problemas pudieron afectar los incrementos de productividad industrial.<hr/>Abstract This research deals with the electrification trajectory of Chilean industries between 1895 and 1955, as an example of those peripheral countries of late industrialization that failed to join the group of high-income countries. Using unpublished data on industrial mechanical power, it is argued that the disorders generated by the World Wars caused difficulties in the process of industrial modernization, motivating a return to the use of primary motors over electric ones. This study shows that the transition to the electric motor was not without conflicts and that such problems could have affected the increases in industrial productivity.