Scielo RSS <![CDATA[América Latina en la historia económica]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=1405-225320170002&lang=pt vol. 24 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Tax Collection, Supply and Control Cattle in Colonial Buenos Aires: The <em>propios</em> and arbitrios between 1780-1820]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Se aborda el problema de la recaudación de impuestos por parte del Ayuntamiento de la ciudad de Buenos Aires entre 1780 y 1820 (los llamados propios y arbitrios). Además, se identifican los principales ingresos y gastos del Cabildo y se intenta medir la carga fiscal del mismo sobre la población. Hago hincapié en la relevancia del ramo de derecho de corrales dentro de la estructura de ingresos, donde destaco la contradicción planteada entre las necesidades de abastecer de carne al mercado de la ciudad y los riesgos de establecer controles más estrictos sobre la propiedad del ganado vacuno. Busco demostrar que las autoridades de la época priorizaron la gobernabilidad antes que un mayor control sobre la propiedad del ganado, lo cual podía poner en riesgo el abasto de carne y el cobro de impuestos.<hr/>Abstract: In the article is addressed the problem of tax collection by the municipality of the city of Buenos Aires between 1780 and 1820 (the so-called propios y arbitrios). Are identified the main revenue and expenditure of the council and it seeks to measure the tax burden on the population. In particular, it emphasizes the importance of corral tax in the income structure of the town council, and the contradiction arose between the needs of meat supply to the city market and risks of establishing tighter controls in concerning ownership of slaughtered animals. It seeks to show that the authorities of the time gave priority to governability rather than greater control over livestock ownership, which put at risk the supply of citadino meat and the collection of municipal taxes. <![CDATA[The Conference of Chapultepec (1945): Latin American Economic Nationalism versus the Free Market Policies of the United States]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200035&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: El presente artículo busca ilustrar el cambio de modelo económico en América Latina a partir de la crisis de 1929 y la transición del modelo enfocado “al exterior” al “mercado interno”, utilizando, principalmente, el caso de México. Asimismo, se explicarán los efectos de la segunda guerra mundial en las principales economías latinoamericanas y el surgimiento de políticas explícitas de industrialización en dichos países. Basándonos en el análisis de fuentes primarias y secundarias, se examinará la llamada Conferencia de Chapultepec (1945) con énfasis en la estructura del debate y contraste en las posturas de los países latinoamericanos, interesados en mantener y profundizar el nacionalismo económico y sus procesos de industrialización, que lograron moderar las propuestas económicas de corte librecambista impulsadas por Estados Unidos.<hr/>Abstract: The present article seeks to illustrate the change of economic model in Latin America from the crisis of 1929 and the transition from the model focused “outwards” to the “internal market”, using mainly the case of Mexico. It will also explain the effects of the Second World War on the major Latin American economies and the emergence of explicit industrialization policies in these countries. Based on the analysis of primary and secondary sources, the so-called Chapultepec Conference (1945) will be examined, with an emphasis on the structure of debate and contrast in the positions of Latin American countries, interested in maintaining and expanding economic nationalism and its processes of industrialization, which managed to moderate the free-trade economic proposals promoted by the United States <![CDATA[Prices and Crisis in Rio de la Plata. Santa Fe (1790-1850)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200059&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: El estudio examina la evolución de los precios en el distrito rioplatense de Santa Fe desde finales de la colonia (cuando los precios de bienes transables de Santa Fe habían iniciado un proceso de convergencia regional) hasta mediados del siglo xix . Se generaron series de precios e índices de precios de bienes transables (vacunos, cueros, trigo) y de bienes de consumo cotidiano (azúcar, tabaco, yerba, vino, aguardiente, lienzo, sal, sebo y grasa) registrados en fuentes religiosas. El análisis de dicha información ofrece nuevas evidencias y bases explicativas sobre la irrupción de sucesivos ciclos inflacionarios y el quiebre de la economía de Santa Fe desde 1815 hasta 1850.<hr/>Abstract: This study examines price evolution in Santa Fe district (Rio de la Plata) since the late years of colonial domination (when Santa Fe’s prices converged with regional prices) to mid-nineteenth century. Monastic sources provided information of prices of commodities (cattle, hides, wheat) as well as prices of consumption goods (sugar, tobacco, yerba mate, wine, aguardiente, salt, grease, tallow, canvas). Long-term prices and price indexes offer new evidence both of inflationary cycles as well as economic breakdown from 1815 to 1850. <![CDATA[Internacionalização brasileira e Instrução 113 da <sc>Sumoc</sc>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200093&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo: Tendo como referência os modelos de desenvolvimento capitalista brasileiro nos anos 1950, nosso objetivo será mostrar o regime disciplinar ao investimento direto estrangeiro (ide) que originou a Instrução 113 da Superintendência da Moeda e do Crédito (Sumoc). O eixo analítico se alicerça pelas principais linhas de continuidade e inflexão intrínsecas à lógica interna dos instrumentos regulatórios ao capital internacional nessa fase. Tal pesquisa foi resultado da investigação de leis, decretos-lei, decretos e medidas cambiais em geral que constituem o marco institucional do período. Nossa conclusão foi que embora existam continuidades entre Kubitschek e Vargas no que diz respeito às condições para importação de bens de capital sem cobertura cambial na forma de ide, os critérios de seleção e essencialidade marcam uma ruptura fundamental nas distintas formas de associação com o capital internacional entre os dois governos.<hr/>Abstract: With reference to the standards of Brazilian capitalist development in the 1950s, our objective is to show the disciplinary system to foreign direct investment (fdi) that originated the Instruction 113 of the Superintendência da Moeda e do Crédito (Sumoc). The analytical axis is based in the main lines of continuity and in the inherent inflexion to the internal logic of regulatory instruments to international capital at this stage. Such study was the result of research of laws, decrees, orders and exchange actions which are generally the institutional framework of the period. Our conclusion was that although there are continuities between Vargas and Kubitschek regarding to the conditions for imported capital goods without exchange cover in the form of fdi, the selection criteria and essentiality mark a fundamental break in the distinct forms of association with the international capital between the two governments. <![CDATA[Public Works Business Sector and Political Groups during Galvez’s Administration. Santa Fe (Argentina), Second half of 19th Century]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200125&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar, a partir del enfoque de redes sociales, la función adquirida por el empresariado rosarino –ligado a la obra pública– en el ámbito político. Para acercarnos a este tópico, tomaremos como escenario exploratorio la gestión del gobernador José Gálvez en Santa Fe (1886-1890) por haber sido uno de los gobiernos que hizo de la ampliación de la infraestructura urbana un eje central de su gestión y su relación con el empresario más controvertido y dinámico en la obra pública, como fue Juan Canals (uno de los pocos radicados en Santa Fe que se dedicó a esta actividad). El principal aporte del trabajo es ilustrar la complejidad de las tramas vinculares construidas por el empresariado rosarino alrededor de las arcas del poder político santafesino durante dicho periodo, temática escasamente explorada por la historiografía local.<hr/>Abstract: This article focuses on the role of entrepreneurs linked to public works of Rosario in the political sphere, from the approach of social networks. We approach to this topic by exploring the administration of Governor Gálvez in Santa Fe (1886-1890) and his relationship with Juan Canals. Canals was one of the few who engaged in that activity while he was living in Santa Fe and was the most controverted and dynamic businessman in public works at that time. The main contribution of this paper is to illustrate the complex links stablished between business sector in Rosario and political power in Santa Fe during this period. This subject was few explored by local historiography. <![CDATA[Entre o conservadorismo orçamentário e o desenvolvimento regional: finanças públicas e infraestrutura de transportes em Minas Gerais na Primeira República]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200148&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumo: O principal escopo é examinar, com base em novas evidências, a evolução das finanças públicas de Minas Gerais na República Velha, com destaque para o lugar do dispêndio com a infraestrutura de transportes. Também se discute a vigência de conflito entre preocupação com o equilíbrio orçamentário e políticas de desenvolvimento. Na primeira seção são analisadas as receitas e despesas estaduais, com ênfase na classificação dos comportamentos assumidos por essas variáveis ao longo do período e na determinação das principais rubricas que as compunham. Também é examinada a evolução da dívida fundada, assim como sua correlação com as despesas públicas. A segunda seção analisa especificamente os gastos com a infraestrutura de transportes, nomeadamente ferrovias e estradas de rodagem. Primeiro o relacionamento entre o crescimento da malha ferroviária e as despesas do Estado com garantias de juros, subvenções e empréstimos a companhias ferroviárias. Em seguida a evolução dos gastos com rodovias.<hr/>Abstract: The principal scope of this study is to examine, based on new evidence, the evolution of the public finances of Minas Gerais in the Old Republic, with an emphasis on the role of transportation infrastructure expenditures. Also discussed is the conflict between concern over budgetary equilibrium and development policies. The first section analyzes state revenues and expenses, with emphasis on the classification of the behaviors of these variables over the period and the determination of the main categories that make them up. Also analyzed is the evolution of government funded debt, as well as its correlation with public expenditures. The second section specifically analyzes expenses on transportation infrastructure–in this case, railroads and highways, first by examining the relationship between growth in the railway network and State outlays for interest guarantees, subsidies and loans to railway companies, and then the evolution of expenditures on railways. <![CDATA[The Origins of Credit Cooperatives in Argentina, 1887-1926]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200201&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Las cooperativas de crédito argentinas dieron sus primeros pasos entre 1887 y 1926, al amparo de un marco legal impreciso. La pobre caracterización de la sociedad cooperativa en el código de comercio de 1889, y la falta de una legislación y regulación adecuada en el sistema financiero, dieron lugar a la aparición de una variedad de iniciativas, no siempre inspiradas por el espíritu de solidaridad y ayuda recíproca. El presente artículo ofrece un panorama general de aquellas experiencias pioneras. Combinando fuentes primarias y secundarias, se identifican y describen los rasgos esenciales de las entidades fundadas antes de la sanción de la primera Ley de Cooperativas, a finales de 1926. El estudio también discute los principales cambios introducidos por esa norma, examinando sus efectos inmediatos sobre la estructura del sector.<hr/>Abstract: Argentina’s credit co-operatives took their first steps between 1887 and 1926, under the umbrella of an imprecise legal framework. The poor characterization of the co-operative society in the commercial code of 1889, together with the lack of proper legislation and regulations in the financial system, led to the emergence of a variety of initiatives, not always inspired by the spirit of solidarity and mutual assistance. This article provides an overview of those pioneering experiences. By combining primary and secondary sources, it identifies and describes the essential features of the credit co-operatives established before the passing of the first Co-operatives Act, in late 1926. The study also discusses the key changes introduced by this law, analyzing their short-term effects on the sector’s structure. <![CDATA[Similarities in John H. Williams’ and Raúl Prebisch’s Thought about the International Monetary Order in the Postwar]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-22532017000200235&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Este trabajo indaga en las similitudes del pensamiento de Williams y Prebisch sobre el sistema monetario internacional, y analiza la articulación entre los intereses oficiales estadunidenses y los países periféricos en los albores de Bretton Woods, a través de la interpretación del balance de pagos, compartida por ambos, basada en la teoría de la interdependencia y complementariedad centro-periferia. Prebisch mantuvo un largo vínculo de amistad y trabajo con Williams, profesor de Harvard y vicepresidente del Banco de la Reserva Federal de Nueva York en la época de discusión de los planes monetarios internacionales, e impulsó la industrialización de los países periféricos acorde al nuevo orden económico mundial, bajo la hegemonía estadunidense, y con el capital extranjero como requisito necesario, reflejando el aparato conceptual aquí analizado.<hr/>Abstract: This work explores the similarities in Williams’ and Prebisch’s thoughts about the international monetary system, and analyzes the conceptual link between the strategic interests of the United States and those of the peripheral countries, through the interpretation of the balance of payments accounts based on the theory of interdependence centre-periphery, in the dawn of Bretton Woods institutions. Prebisch maintained a relationship of work and friendship with Williams, a Harvard professor and vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York when the international monetary plans were discussed, and promoted the industrialisation of peripheral countries according to the new world economic order, under the hegemony of the United States, and based on the foreign capital, putting in practice the theoretical tools here analyzed. Key words: co-operatives; credit; legal framework; Argentina.